Davisville Middle School Vandalism Essay

1. Malvern, Toronto – Malvern is a neighbourhood in the city of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, with a population of 44,315. It is located in the northeast corner of the city, there are over 60 different cultures represented in Malvern, with the most dominant ethnic groups being Caribbean Canadians and South Asian Canadians. The neighbourhood has the highest concentration of people in Canada. During the raids,71 warrants were executed resulting in the arrest of 65 people, further raids, and the implementation of Project Pathfinder would result in arrests of the Malvern Crews rival gang, the Galloway Boys, in West Hill. The history of Malvern began in 1856, when the Malvern Post Office was opened in David Browns general store and this post office was named after a resort town in England. A year after the post office was opened, Senator David Reesor — formerly of Markham Village — began selling Village Lots in Malvern, Reesor trumpeted Malvern as the future Capital of Scarborough, anticipating that the Grand Trunk Railway would extend a branch line through here. Unfortunately, when the Grand Trunk Railway began service to area in 1871. The village centre and post office had by that time moved south to the corner of todays Sheppard Avenue and Markham Road. The Malvern Primitive Methodist Church on the east side of Markham Road north of Sheppard disappeared in the 1970s, while Malvern never did become a prosperous railway centre, it flourished as a farming community for over one hundred years. In the late 1950s, the Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation expropriated Malverns farms to build a community of affordable homes. The first residents of modern day Malvern community moved into their homes in 1972. Mother Teresa Catholic Academy, and the Malvern Recreation Centre, Malvern is served by several Toronto Transit Commission bus routes. In the 1980s, there was a plan to bring rapid transit to Malvern by extending the TTCs Scarborough Rapid Transit line, in August 2006, city councillors representing Scarborough rallied for the expansion of the Scarborough RT, or its possible light rail replacement, to the Malvern community. The TTC is currently carrying assessing extending the RT from McCowan to Malvern Town Centre and they have also made a motion that the current study should include the addition of a station where the existing line crosses Brimley Road. In 2006, a study was completed on the prospects of this line and it recommended upgrading the line to handle larger ART Mark II vehicles, at a cost of $360 million. Extending the Bloor–Danforth line was not considered cost-effective or justifiable, unfortunately, in a 2010 budget release, Ontario Premier Dalton McGuinty had chosen to postpone necessary funding for the project. The Scarborough Malvern LRT line, part of the TTCs Transit City plan, would run for 15 km, the whole line would be built within Scarborough. Finally, the line turns north at Neilson Road, terminating at Malvern Town Centre, newly elected Rob Ford cancelled the Malvern LRT shortly after he came to office in 2010

2. Toronto – Toronto is the most populous city in Canada and the provincial capital of Ontario. With a population of 2,731,571, it is the fourth most populous city in North America after Mexico City, New York City, and Los Angeles. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance, arts, and culture. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited the area now known as Toronto for thousands of years, the city itself is situated on the southern terminus of an ancient Aboriginal trail leading north to Lake Simcoe, used by the Wyandot, Iroquois, and the Mississauga. Permanent European settlement began in the 1790s, after the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase of 1787, the British established the town of York, and later designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York, York was renamed and incorporated as the city of Toronto in 1834, and became the capital of the province of Ontario during the Canadian Confederation in 1867. The city proper has since expanded past its original borders through amalgamation with surrounding municipalities at various times in its history to its current area of 630.2 km2. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, Toronto is a prominent centre for music, theatre, motion picture production, and television production, and is home to the headquarters of Canadas major national broadcast networks and media outlets. Toronto is known for its skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere. The name Toronto is likely derived from the Iroquois word tkaronto and this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, in the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagonon the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, French traders founded Fort Rouillé on the current Exhibition grounds in 1750, but abandoned it in 1759. During the American Revolutionary War, the region saw an influx of British settlers as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario, the new province of Upper Canada was in the process of creation and needed a capital. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto, in 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, instead naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the towns natural harbour, sheltered by a long sandbar peninsula. The towns settlement formed at the end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the towns capture, the surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. US soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation, the sacking of York was a primary motivation for the Burning of Washington by British troops later in the war

3. Ontario – Ontario, one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada, is located in east-central Canada. It is Canadas most populous province by a margin, accounting for nearly 40 percent of all Canadians. Ontario is fourth-largest in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and it is home to the nations capital city, Ottawa, and the nations most populous city, Toronto. There is only about 1 km of land made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes divided into two regions, Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario. The great majority of Ontarios population and arable land is located in the south, in contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and is heavily forested. The province is named after Lake Ontario, a thought to be derived from Ontarí, io, a Huron word meaning great lake, or possibly skanadario. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes, the province consists of three main geographical regions, The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area mostly does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes, Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions, Northwestern Ontario and Northeastern Ontario. The virtually unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the north and northeast, mainly swampy. Southern Ontario which is further sub-divided into four regions, Central Ontario, Eastern Ontario, Golden Horseshoe, the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level located in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands, the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. A well-known geographic feature is Niagara Falls, part of the Niagara Escarpment, the Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies roughly 87 percent of the area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario that is the southernmost extent of Canadas mainland, Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend slightly farther. All are south of 42°N – slightly farther south than the border of California. The climate of Ontario varies by season and location, the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend mainly on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontarios climate is classified as humid continental, Ontario has three main climatic regions

4. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotation

5. Secondary school – A secondary school is both an organization that delivers level 2 junior secondary education or level 3 secondary education phases of the ISCED scale, and the building where this takes place. Level 2 junior secondary education is considered to be the second, Secondary schools typically follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages 11 and 16, the systems and terminology remain unique to each country. School building design does not happen in isolation, schools need to accommodate students, staff, storage, mechanical and electrical systems, storage, support staff, ancillary staff and administration. The number of rooms required can be determined from the roll of the school. A general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55m2, or more generously 62m2, a general art room for 30 students needs to be 83m2, but 104 m2 for 3D textile work. A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m2, examples are given on how this can be configured for a 1,200 place secondary. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of, The students, the teachers, the support staff, the adminstrators. It has to should meet health requirements, minimal functional requirements- such as classrooms, toilets and showers, electricity, textbooks, Government accountants having read the advice then publish minimum guidelines on schools. These enable environmental modelling and establish building costs. Future plans are audited to ensure that standards are not exceeded. The UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014 and it said the floor area should be 1050m² +6. 3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m², a secondary school, locally may be called high school, junior high school, senior high school. Sweden, gymnasium Switzerland, gymnasium, secondary school, collège or lycée Taiwan, Junior High School, Senior High School, Vocational High School, Military School, in Nigeria, secondary school starts from JSS1 until SSS3. Most students start at the age of 10 or 11 and finish at 16 or 17, Students are required to sit for the West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination. To progress to university students must obtain at least a credit in Maths, English, in Somalia, secondary school starts from 9th grade until 12th. Students start it when they are around 14 to 15 years of age, Students are required to study Somali and Arabic, with the option of either English or Italian depending on the type of school. Religion, chemistry, physics, biology, physical education, textile, art, design, when secondary school has been completed, students are sent to national training camp before going to either college, or military training. In South Africa, high school begins at grade 8, Students study for five years, at the end of which they write a Matriculation examination

6. Toronto District School Board – The Toronto District School Board is the English-language public-secular school board for Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Its headquarters are in North York, the TDSB is Canadas largest school board and the fourth largest school board in North America. The Metropolitan Toronto School Boards head office was located at the former York Mills Public School site on Campbell Crescent, TDSB headquarters was located at 155 College Street, the former offices of the Toronto Board of Education. TDSB head office moved from 155 College Street to 5050 Yonge Street, the TDSB is the largest school board in Canada and the 4th largest in North America. The record was held by the Metropolitan Separate School Board with over 100,000 students until 1998 what is now the Toronto Catholic District School Board. There are more than 250,000 students in nearly 600 schools within the TDSB, of these schools,451 offer elementary education,102 offer secondary level education, and there are five adult day schools. The TDSB has 16 alternative elementary schools as well as 20 alternative secondary schools, TDSB has approximately 31,000 permanent and 8,000 temporary staff, which includes 10,000 elementary school teachers and 5,800 at the secondary level. There has also been an effort to include more student involvement in the Toronto District School Board, the Super Council is an organization which acts as a student council for the entire board. There has also been an attempt to place student input in the TDSBs Equity Department through the second, both groups have put together various events and have had much success in giving input towards the decisions of the Board. The TDSB actively recruits students from outside of Canada, and attracts students from Kindergarten to Grade 12th, the current Director of Education is Dr. John Malloy, who is serving on an interim basis during an 18-month period since January 4,2016, replacing Donna Quan. Malloy is also serving as an Assistant Deputy Minister and Chief Student Achievement Officer with the Ontario Ministry of Education. One option is the Parent Involvement Advisory Committee, parents can design and propose a new school in the TDSB. There is a 2-year process for review, approval and opening the school, in 2002, the Government of Ontario stripped all power and authority from the school board trustees because they failed to balance the boards budget. Paul Christie was appointed by the province to serve as supervisor of the Toronto District School Board, with authority for all financial and this allowed Christie to supersede the authority of elected school trustees. The provincial government argued that the appointment was necessary, as the TDSB had not submitted a budget to the Ontario Minister of Education as legally required. Representatives of the TDSB claimed that they could not find the necessary operating expenses for the year, Christie balanced the TDSBs budget through a dramatic spending reduction of $90 million. Christies staff reports were not made public, and some argued that there were no adequate checks or balances on his authority. Blackstone Partners carried out a review in 2006 and they submitted a 113-page report in January 2007

7. Scarborough Board of Education – The former SBE offices remain in use today by the TDSB as the East Education Office. In 1992, the SBE and the Centennial College made a deal to establish an education centre. In 1994 the entities agreed to establish the centre there beginning in the fall of that year, plans were made to conduct the Scarborough Alternative For Educating Troubled Youths program in 1994. The program was designed for students with twenty-day suspensions, the maximum period possible, community protests put these plans on hold and were never materialized. Currently, the SAFETY program was later evolved into the TDSBs Caring, scarboroughs schools in the south end of the city were built from the 1920 to 1960s. Older 19th and 20th century school houses were demolished to make way for buildings as the area grew. On the north end of the city schools were built from the 1960s to 1980s, at one time the board operated educational programs for Francophone students. The Conseil des écoles françaises de la communauté urbaine de Toronto assumed control of French-language education in the Toronto area on 1 December 1988, gaye Dale, Trustee of Scarborough Ward 1 and Chairman of the Board. The SBE operated six vocational schools that are not classified as regular collegiates. Three schools offered general and basic courses as Business and Technical Institute while the three offered basic level courses in a special education level branded as High School. Two facilities that have unique features such as Bendale and Tabor Park. McCowan Road Jr. King 1954-1960 Anson S. Taylor 1961-1977 Earl G. Buses, the administrative offices remains in use today by the Toronto District School Board. Prior to 1973, the office was also located at Scarborough Municipal Offices at 2100 Eglinton Avenue near Birchmount Road. The board operated a fleet of their own buses, similar to the Toronto Board of Education. Hillside Outdoor Education Centre, formerly Hillside PS, was used for education programs and located near Rouge Park

8. Education in Canada – Education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly, funded and overseen by federal, provincial, and local governments. Education is within provincial jurisdiction and the curriculum is overseen by the province, Education in Canada is generally divided into primary education, followed by secondary education and post-secondary. Within the provinces under the ministry of education, there are district school boards administering the educational programs, in some provinces early leaving exemptions can be granted under certain circumstances at 14. Canada generally has 190 school days in the year, officially starting from September to the end of June, in British Columbia secondary schools, there are 172 school days during a school year. In Alberta, high school students get an additional four weeks off to accommodate for exam break, classes typically end on the 15th of those two months. Elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education in Canada is a provincial responsibility, some educational fields are supported at various levels by federal departments. Vocational training can be subsidized by the Learning branch of Human Resources, in many places, publicly funded high school courses are offered to the adult population. Nonetheless, more than 51% of Canadians have a college degree, the majority of schools, at 67%, are co-educational. Canada spends about 5. 4% of its GDP on education, the country invests heavily in tertiary education. Recent reports suggest that from 2006 the tuition fees of Canadian universities have increased by 40 percent, although these classes are offered, most appear to be limited by the area or region in which students reside. Furthermore, subjects that typically get assessed assume greater importance than non-assessed subjects or facets of the curriculum, the students in the Canadian school system receive a variety of classes that are offered to them. The system is set up to meet the needs of the individual student. The Constitution of Canada provides constitutional protections for some types of publicly funded religious-based and language-based school systems, the provision did originally apply to Ontario, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Newfoundland and Labrador, since these provinces did have pre-existing separate schools. This constitutional provision was repealed in Quebec by an amendment in 1997. The constitutional provision continues to apply to Ontario, Saskatchewan and Alberta, there is a similar federal statutory provision which applies to the Northwest Territories. In practice, this means that there are publicly funded English schools in Quebec, and publicly funded French schools in the other provinces. Quebec students must attend a French school up until the end of school unless one of their parents qualifies as a rights-holder under s.23 of the Charter. Most education programs in Canada begin in kindergarten or grade one and go to grade twelve, except in Quebec, after completion of a secondary school diploma, students may go on to post-secondary studies

9. Canadian English – Canadian English is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada. A larger number,28 million people, reported using English as their dominant language, 82% of Canadians outside the province of Quebec reported speaking English natively, but within Quebec the figure was just 7. 7% as most of its residents are native speakers of Quebec French. Canadian English contains elements of British English and American English, as well as many Canadianisms, the construction of identities and English-language varieties across political borders is a complex social phenomenon. The term Canadian English is first attested in a speech by the Reverend A. Constable Geikie in an address to the Canadian Institute in 1857, Canadian English is the product of five waves of immigration and settlement over a period of more than two centuries. Studies on earlier forms of English in Canada are rare, yet connections with other work to historical linguistics can be forged, an overview of diachronic work on Canadian English, or diachronically-relevant work, is Dollinger. Until the 2000s, basically all commentators on the history of CanE have argued from the language-external history, an exception has been in the area of lexis, where Avis et als Dictionary of Canadianisms on Historical Principles, offered real-time historical data though its quotations. Recently, historical linguists have started to study earlier Canadian English on historical linguistic data, dCHP-1 is now available in open access. )Most notably, Dollinger pioneered the historical corpus linguistic approach for English in Canada with CONTE and offers a developmental scenario for 18th and 19th century Ontario. Recently, Reuter, with a 19th-century newspaper corpus from Ontario, has confirmed the scenario laid out in Dollinger, Canadian spelling of the English language combines British and American conventions. Words such as realize and paralyze are usually spelled with -ize or -yze rather than -ise or -yse, french-derived words that in American English end with -or and -er, such as color or center, often retain British spellings. While the United States uses the Anglo-French spelling defense and offense, some nouns, as in British English, take -ice while matching verbs take -ise – for example, practice and licence are nouns while practise and license are the respective corresponding verbs. Canadian spelling sometimes retains the British practice of doubling consonants when adding suffixes to words even when the syllable is not stressed. Compare Canadian travelled, counselling, and marvellous to American traveled, counseling, in American English, such consonants are only doubled when stressed, thus, for instance, controllable and enthralling are universal. In other cases, Canadians and Americans differ from British spelling, such as in the case of nouns like curb and tire, Canadian spelling conventions can be partly explained by Canadas trade history. For instance, the British spelling of the word cheque probably relates to Canadas once-important ties to British financial institutions, Canadas political history has also had an influence on Canadian spelling. Canadas first prime minister, John A. Macdonald, once directed the Governor General of Canada to issue an order-in-council directing that government papers be written in the British style, a contemporary reference for formal Canadian spelling is the spelling used for Hansard transcripts of the Parliament of Canada. Many Canadian editors, though, use the Canadian Oxford Dictionary, often along with the chapter on spelling in Editing Canadian English, and, throughout part of the 20th century, some Canadian newspapers adopted American spellings, for example, color as opposed to the British-based colour. Some of the most substantial historical spelling data can be found in Dollinger, the use of such spellings was the long-standing practice of the Canadian Press perhaps since that news agencys inception, but visibly the norm prior to World War II. The practice of dropping the letter u in such words was also considered a labour-saving technique during the days of printing in which movable type was set manually

10. Scarborough, Toronto – Scarborough is a suburban district in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Situated atop the Scarborough Bluffs, it occupies the part of the city. Scarborough is contained within the borders of Victoria Park Avenue on the west, Steeles Avenue to the north, Rouge River and the city of Pickering to the east and it was named after the English town of Scarborough, North Yorkshire. First settled by Europeans in the 1790s, Scarborough has grown from a collection of rural villages. Incorporated in 1850 as a township, Scarborough became part of Metropolitan Toronto in 1953 and was reconstituted as a borough in 1967, Scarborough rapidly developed as a suburb of Old Toronto over the next decade and became a city in 1983. In 1998, Scarborough and the rest of Metropolitan Toronto were amalgamated into the present city of Toronto, Scarborough is an administrative district in Toronto and has its own community council. The Scarborough Civic Centre, the city hall, is still used by the municipal government of Toronto. Scarborough is a destination for new immigrants in Canada to reside. As a result, it is one of the most diverse and multicultural areas in the Greater Toronto Area, being home to religious groups. It includes some of Torontos popular natural landmarks, such as Rouge Park, Scarborough has been declared to be greener than any other part of Toronto. The area was named after Scarborough, North Yorkshire, England by Elizabeth Simcoe, the wife of John Graves Simcoe, the bluffs along Scarboroughs Lake Ontario shores reminded her of the limestone cliffs in Scarborough, England. On August 4,1793, she wrote in her diary, The shore is extremely bold, and has the appearance of chalk cliffs and they appeared so well that we talked of building a summer residence there and calling it Scarborough. Before that, the area was named Glasgow, after the Scottish city, the most popular is Scarberia, a portmanteau of Scarborough and Siberia, a reference to its seemingly distant eastern location from downtown Toronto. The word originated sometime in the 1960s and has remained a source of contention ever since. In May 1988, Joyce Trimmer, who was campaigning to be mayor of the city of Scarborough, said, Scarborough has also acquired nicknames related to its diversity. Such nicknames typically use the prefix Scar and a derived from the name of a region, nation, or ethnicity, for instance, Scompton or Scarlem, alluding to Compton. The first known evidence of people in Scarborough comes from a site in Fenwood Heights. The site contains the remains of a camp of nomadic hunters and foragers, after the land was surveyed in 1793, it was opened to settlement by British subjects with the first issue of land patents in 1796, although squatters had already been present for a few years

11. Canada – Canada is a country in the northern half of North America. Canadas border with the United States is the worlds longest binational land border, the majority of the country has a cold or severely cold winter climate, but southerly areas are warm in summer. Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its territory being dominated by forest and tundra. It is highly urbanized with 82 per cent of the 35.15 million people concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, One third of the population lives in the three largest cities, Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Its capital is Ottawa, and other urban areas include Calgary, Edmonton, Quebec City, Winnipeg. Various aboriginal peoples had inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Pursuant to the British North America Act, on July 1,1867, the colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and this began an accretion of provinces and territories to the mostly self-governing Dominion to the present ten provinces and three territories forming modern Canada. With the Constitution Act 1982, Canada took over authority, removing the last remaining ties of legal dependence on the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II being the head of state. The country is officially bilingual at the federal level and it is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Its advanced economy is the eleventh largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources, Canadas long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. Canada is a country and has the tenth highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the ninth highest ranking in the Human Development Index. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, Canada is an influential nation in the world, primarily due to its inclusive values, years of prosperity and stability, stable economy, and efficient military. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the origins of Canada. In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona, from the 16th to the early 18th century Canada referred to the part of New France that lay along the St. Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named The Canadas, until their union as the British Province of Canada in 1841. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the name for the new country at the London Conference. The transition away from the use of Dominion was formally reflected in 1982 with the passage of the Canada Act, later that year, the name of national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day

12. Toronto Transit Commission – The Toronto Transit Commission is a public transport agency that operates bus, rapid transit, streetcar, and paratransit services in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Established in 1921, the TTC comprises four rapid transit lines with 69 stations, over 149 bus routes, and 10 streetcar lines. In 4th quarter 2012, the daily ridership was 2.76 million passengers,1,425,300 by bus,271,100 by streetcar,46,400 by intermediate rail. The TTC also operates paratransit service for the elderly and disabled. The TTC is the third most heavily used urban mass transit system in North America, after the New York City Transit Authority, public transit in Toronto started in 1849 with a privately operated transit service. In later years, the city operated some routes, but in 1921 assumed control over all routes, during this period, streetcars provided the bulk of the service. In 1954, the TTC adopted its present name, opened the first subway line, the system has evolved to feature a wide network of surface routes with the subway lines as the backbone. On February 17,2008, the TTC made many improvements, finally reversing more than a decade of service reductions. The Gloucester subway cars, the first version of TTC subway cars, another common slogan is The Better Way. The TTC has recovered about 70% of its costs from the fare box in recent years. From its creation in 1921 until 1971, the TTC was self-supporting both for capital and operations, deficits and subsidies soared throughout the 1970s and 1980s, followed by service cuts and a period of ridership decline in the 1990s, partly attributable to recession. Since then, the TTC has consistently been in financial difficulties, Service cuts were averted in 2007, though, when the Toronto City Council voted to introduce new taxes to help pay for city services, including the TTC. As a result, the TTC became the largest transit operator in Anglo-America not to receive provincial/state subsidies, the TTC has received federal funding for capital projects from as early as 2009. The TTC is also considered one of the costliest transit systems per fare price in North America, for the 2011 operating year, the TTC had a projected operating budget of $1.45 billion. Revenue from fares covered approximately 70% of the budget, whereas the remaining 30% originated from the city, in 2009 through 2011, provincial and federal subsidies amounted to 0% of the budget. In contrast to this, STM Montreal receives approximately 10% of its budget from the provincial government. The fairness of preferentially subsidizing transit in specific Canadian cities has been questioned by citizens, the TTC operated the ferry service to the Toronto Islands from 1927 to 1962, when it was transferred to the Metro Parks and Culture department. Gray Coach Lines was a suburban and regional intercity bus operator founded in 1927 by the TTC, Gray Coach used interurban coaches to link Toronto to points throughout southern Ontario

13. Nobel Peace Prize – Per Alfred Nobels will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo City Hall each year, the prize was formerly awarded in the Atrium of the University of Oslo Faculty of Law, the Norwegian Nobel Institute, and the Parliament. Due to its nature, the Nobel Peace Prize has, for most of its history. Alfred Nobels will further specified that the prize be awarded by a committee of five chosen by the Norwegian Parliament. Nobel died in 1896 and he did not leave an explanation for choosing peace as a prize category, as he was a trained chemical engineer, the categories for chemistry and physics were obvious choices. The reasoning behind the peace prize is less clear, some Nobel scholars suggest it was Nobels way to compensate for developing destructive forces. His inventions included dynamite and ballistite, both of which were used violently during his lifetime, ballistite was used in war and the Irish Republican Brotherhood, an Irish nationalist organization, carried out dynamite attacks in the 1880s. Nobel was also instrumental in turning Bofors from an iron and steel producer into an armaments company and it is unclear why Nobel wished the Peace Prize to be administered in Norway, which was ruled in union with Sweden at the time of Nobels death. The Norwegian Nobel Committee speculates that Nobel may have considered Norway better suited to awarding the prize, the Norwegian Parliament appoints the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which selects the Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Each year, the Norwegian Nobel Committee specifically invites qualified people to submit nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize, the statutes of the Nobel Foundation specify categories of individuals who are eligible to make nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize. Nominations by committee members can be submitted up to the date of the first Committee meeting after this deadline. In 2009, a record 205 nominations were received, but the record was again in 2010 with 237 nominations, in 2011. Nominations from 1901 to 1956, however, have released in a database. Nominations are considered by the Nobel Committee at a meeting where a short list of candidates for review is created. Advisers usually have some months to complete reports, which are considered by the Committee to select the laureate. The Committee seeks to achieve a decision, but this is not always possible. The Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway on 10 December each year, the Peace Prize is the only Nobel Prize not presented in Stockholm. The Nobel laureate receives a diploma, a medal, and a document confirming the prize amount, as of 2013, the prize was worth 10 million SEK

14. Lester B. Pearson – He was the 14th Prime Minister of Canada from 22 April 1963 to 20 April 1968, as the head of two back-to-back Liberal minority governments following elections in 1963 and 1965. During Pearsons time as Prime Minister, his Liberal minority governments introduced universal health care, student loans, the Canada Pension Plan, the Order of Canada, and his Liberal government also unified Canadas armed forces. Pearson convened the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, and he kept Canada out of the Vietnam War, Pearson was born in Newtonbrook in the township of York, Ontario, the son of Annie Sarah and Edwin Arthur Pearson, a Methodist minister. He was the brother of Vaughan Whitier Pearson and Marmaduke Pearson, the family lived in the Methodist manse at the corner of Spruce St. and Catherine St. The home still exists but is in private hands, the Methodist church in downtown Aurora became the United Church of Canada. The church was demolished following a fire in 2014. Rev. Pearson was a member of the Aurora Rugby team where young Mike apparently got his inspiration, Pearson graduated from Hamilton Collegiate Institute in Hamilton, Ontario, in 1913 at the age of 16. Later that same year, he entered Victoria College at the University of Toronto and he was later elected to the Pi Gamma Mu social sciences honour societys chapter at the University of Toronto for his outstanding scholastic performance in history and psychology. After Victoria College, Pearson won a scholarship to study at St Johns College, Oxford, at the University of Toronto, he became a noted athlete, excelling in rugby union, and also playing basketball. He later also played for the Oxford University Ice Hockey Club while on a scholarship at the University of Oxford, Pearson also excelled in baseball and lacrosse as a youth. His baseball talents as an infielder were strong enough for a summer of semi-pro play with the Guelph Maple Leafs of the Ontario Intercounty Baseball League, Pearson toured North American with a combined Oxford and Cambridge Universities lacrosse team in 1923. After he joined the University of Toronto History Department as an instructor, he helped to coach the U of Ts football and he played golf and tennis to high standards as an adult. When World War I broke out in 1914, Pearson volunteered for service as an orderly with the University of Toronto Hospital Unit. In 1915, he entered service with the Canadian Army Medical Corps as a stretcher bearer with the rank of private. During this period of service he spent two years in Egypt and in Greece and he also spent time in the Serbian Army as a corporal and a medical orderly. Pearson learned to fly at an air training school in Hendon and he survived an aeroplane crash during his first flight. In 1918, Pearson was hit by a bus in London during a blackout and he was sent home to recuperate. It was as a pilot that he received the nickname of Mike, thereafter, Pearson would use the name Lester on official documents and in public life, but was always addressed as Mike by friends and family

15. Lilly Singh

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