Commercial Law Research Papers

This article will provide an overview of business law. The article will explain the basic concepts that are foundational to business law. These concepts include forming and enforcing contracts, dealing in the sales of goods and drafting and honoring negotiable instruments such as checks or promissory notes. In addition, this article also explains issues that relate to business formation and dissolution, such as common forms of business organizations, agency and employment relationships and bankruptcy proceedings. Other important factors that are central to business law are introduced, including business ethics, business crimes and business management. Finally, examples of the interplay between business law, government regulation and consumers are provided. These examples describe how business law is impacted by environmental regulations, consumer protection laws and antitrust laws and are included to help illustrate how business development and business law functions within the often competing interests of profit-making, consumer rights and government oversight.

Keywords Agency; Business Organization; Contract; Ethics; Goods; Negotiable Instrument; Partnership; Securities

Law: Business Law

Overview

Business law is a branch of civil law that governs business and commercial dealings. This broad area of the law includes sections dealing with business formation, administration and management as well as the contracts and ventures that businesses initiate, enter and enforce as they develop. Business law as it stands today is the result of principles that have developed through federal and state common law and the compilation of laws into legal codes and models that provide frameworks for certain areas of the law.

For many matters relating to routine business transactions, businesses follow the laws set forth in the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC). In 1952, the United States grouped many business laws into a model that could be used by all states to regulate business formation and operation. The UCC is a compilation of rules that apply to commercial transactions between businesses and between individuals and businesses. It has been adopted by 49 states, with Louisiana only using portions of it. By standardizing business laws, the UCC simplified the process of doing business across state lines, which greatly facilitated the rise in interstate commerce and business development. The major areas covered by the UCC include the sale of goods, bank deposits and collections, letters of credit, title documents and investment securities. In addition to the UCC, many government regulations and federal and state laws make up the body of business law. These laws have significantly shaped the relationships between businesses and consumers and businesses and government regulation. The following sections provide a more in-depth explanation of these concepts.

Basic Concepts in Business Law

Businesses do business with other business entities, with consumers and even with government agencies. In order to carry out their purposes, businesses enter into contracts, negotiate the sale of goods and create commercial paper and negotiable instruments. Each one of these business activities is regulated by law and businesses must conform their dealings with the relevant legal requirements or face penalties or lawsuits that could cripple, or even extinguish, its viability as a continuing enterprise. The following sections explain the legal principles at work in each of these business activities.

Contracts

Every business, whether large or small, enters into contracts with employees, suppliers of goods and services and customers in order to conduct its business operations. This makes contract law an important subject for the business manager. Contract law is also basic to other fields of law with which business interact, such as agency, partnerships, sales of personal property and commercial paper. Thus, contract formation is a basic component of the life of any business.

A contract is a binding agreement that the courts will enforce. In other words, a contract is a promise that one or both parties to an agreement extend, and if the promise is broken or "breached," the courts will provide a remedy to the non-breaching party. Thus, a contract provides both parties to an agreement with the expectation that the other party will fulfill their promised performance. Contracts are primarily governed by state common law and certain sections of the UCC.

There are basic elements to a legally binding agreement that must be met in order for a contract to be considered valid and enforceable. These four requirements are mutual assent, consideration, legality of object and capacity. Mutual assent means the parties must show in words or actions that they have agreed to enter into a contract. Usually, this is shown by offer and acceptance, and mutual assent may be in the form of a writing or, in some circumstances, an oral agreement or simply a reasonable inference from a person's behavior. Consideration is a thing of value that each party intentionally exchanges as an inducement for the other party's fulfillment of the agreement. For instance, when one person exchanges money for the other party to perform a service, both parties have provided consideration to support their agreement. Legality of object means that the purpose of the contract must not be criminal, must not cause certain types of harm, known as torts, or be against public policy. Finally, both parties must have the capacity to enter into contractual obligations. In other words, minors and intoxicated parties have a limited capacity to enter into contracts while persons who have a court appointed guardian have no contractual capacity. Most others have full contractual capacity. While each of these elements require close analysis to determine whether they have been met, courts will generally uphold any agreement in which both parties who have the capacity to form contracts have assented to their agreement and provided consideration to support its terms, and the purpose of the contract is not criminal or against public policy. Courts will generally not examine the relative fairness of the terms of the contract if these elements have been met, unless there is some evidence of an egregious imbalance of power in the formation of the contract.

Contracts are generally classified into five categories according to their terms or method of formation. The first category deals with how a contract was formed. An express contract is stated in words that are expressed orally or are reduced to writing. An implied in fact contract is an agreement that is inferred from the conduct of the parties. For instance, if a customer walks into a fast-food restaurant and points at an item on the menu, the cashier will likely ring up the item and the customer will pay. Even though no words were spoken, this is a valid contract because the cashier understands from the customer's conduct that he wants to order the item he indicated and the customer understands that by pointing to an item on the menu, the cashier will charge him for the food.

Second, contracts can also be classified as bilateral or unilateral. In a bilateral contract, both parties exchange promises. In a unilateral contract, only one party makes a promise. If it is unclear as to whether a contract is bilateral or unilateral, courts will look to the behavior of the parties to see whether it is possible to presume that a bilateral contract was intended. Third, contracts are sometimes categorized according to their enforceability. A valid contract is one that meets all of the requirements of a binding contract, such as mutual assent, consideration, legality of purpose and capacity, and is enforceable by courts. A void contract is one that does not meet all of these requirements and thus has no legal effect because the contract was never fully formed. For instance, if the courts determine a person is incompetent, any contract in which he or she enters will be void because the party lacked the legal capacity to form a contract. A voidable contract is a fully formed contract, but because of problems in the way it was formed, courts permit one or more parties to avoid the legal duties that the contract creates. Finally, an unenforceable contract is one for which there is no remedy for a breach.

Contracts may also be executed or executory. An executed contract is one in which all of the parties have fully completed their promised performance. An executory contract is one in which one or both parties have not completed the performance due. Finally, contracts may be formal or informal. A formal contract is legally binding due to its particular nature. For instance, a negotiable instrument such as a check is a formal contract because it contains all of the necessary elements to transfer funds. An informal contract is a contract that is legally binding but does not require certain formalities to be met.

Sales

Sales are the most common of all commercial transactions. In an exchange economy such as ours, practically everyone is a purchaser of durable and consumer goods, and the movement of goods along the continuum from manufacturer to distributor and ultimately to consumer involves numerous sales transactions. The critical role of the law of sales is to establish a framework in which these exchanges may take place in a predictable, fair and orderly fashion with minimum levels of transaction costs.

Article 2 of the UCC governs the sale of goods. In general, a sale is the transfer of ownership of goods from seller to buyer for a price. The price can be paid in money, other goods, real property or services. Goods are essentially defined as movable, tangible, personal property. For example, the sale of a bicycle, stereo set or furniture is considered a sale of goods. Thus, the law of sales under the UCC does not cover secured transactions, leases or real property issues. The UCC requires that all sales contracts be performed in good faith, which means merchants must act with honesty and candor in their business dealings with consumers and observe reasonable commercial standards in dealing with other merchants. A court may refuse to enforce all or any part of a contract that it finds to be unconscionable, either because of unfairness in the bargaining process or because the terms of the contract are grossly unfair or oppressive.

Businesses must pay close attention to the special provisions for transactions between merchants, or those who act as dealers in goods, because the UCC establishes separate rules that apply to these transactions. These rules demand higher standards of conduct from merchants because of their knowledge of trade and commerce and because merchants as a class generally set these standards for themselves. The other sections of Article 2 regulate every phase of a transaction for the sale of goods and provides remedies for problems that may arise. Businesses must conform to the UCC's provisions for contract formation, issues arising prior to performance and the seller's obligations to the buyer regarding the condition and quality of his goods. In addition, the UCC also requires that merchants offer implied warranties of merchantability and fitness that assure that their goods are quality products that are fit for consumption.

Courts generally allow merchants and businesses to contract freely according to their individual needs. However, parties to a sales contract may not agree and may disregard their duties of good faith, diligence, reasonableness and care in their dealings with one another. If a sales negotiation or transaction does break down so that a lawsuit arises, the UCC provides that courts may grant remedies to place the injured party in as good of a position as she would have been in had the defaulting party fully performed. However, under the UCC, remedies are limited to compensation and thus courts may not set additional punitive damages if the UCC does not specifically provide for them. Courts may supply alternative remedies only if the UCC does not expressly provide for an appropriate remedy.

Commercial Paper

Commercial paper is essentially a contract for the payment of money. Commercial paper can function as a substitute for money that is payable immediately, such as a check, or it can be used as a means of extending credit or delaying payment, as in a promissory note or certificate of deposit. One form of commercial paper that is frequently used by businesses is a negotiable instrument. The UCC defines negotiable instruments as signed documents that readily transfer money and that provide a promise to pay the bearer a sum of money at a future date or on demand. If the instrument does not meet these requirements, it is nonnegotiable and is treated as a simple contract rather than as a negotiable instrument. If an instrument is incomplete because the party omitted a necessary element, such as the amount payable or the designation of the payee, the instrument is not negotiable until it is completed. If an instrument is ambiguous, such as if it is unclear whether the instrument is a draft or a note, the UCC allows the holder to treat it as either one and present it for payment to the drawee. However, certain rules of construction apply in that handwritten changes overrule typewritten or printed words and words overrule figures unless the words are unclear.

The two basic types of negotiable instruments are promises to pay money and orders to pay money. Promises to pay money are relatively simple documents such as a promissory note. A promissory note consists of one person, known as the maker, extending an unconditional promise in writing to pay another person, called the payee, or the person who bears the instrument a fixed amount of money either on demand when the note is presented for payment or at a specified date in the future. A promissory note is often used if a person borrows money from a bank to purchase an automobile. In this instance, the bank will direct the person to sign a promissory note for the unpaid balance of the purchase price.

Another type of negotiable instrument, called an order to pay money, directs a third person to pay money rather than using the two-person arrangement common in promises to pay money. A check is a form of this type of negotiable instrument. A check has three parties to it: one person, known as the drawer, writes a check ordering the drawee, such as a bank, to pay a certain sum of money to a third person, the payee. For instance, Lisa, the owner of a furniture store in Los Angeles, contracts with Juan, a furniture manufacturer in North Carolina, for $20,000 worth of tables, chairs and bookcases. Without negotiable instruments, Lisa would have to risk sending cash across the country to pay Juan for the furniture. If someone stole the money along the way, Lisa would lose the $20,000 and still not have the furniture she requested. By using a check in which Lisa orders her bank to pay $20,000 from her account to Juan, Lisa is able to make the payment in a far more convenient and secure manner.

Business Formation, Organization

The legal form of a business can have great bearing on the operation and profitability of a business venture. This is because different business organizations provide for different requirements in terms of the management or ownership of the operation, the division of profits, the liability of founders for the wrongdoing of any of their peers and the collection of debts and distribution of assets upon the dissolution of the enterprise. The following sections will discuss the various forms of business organizations in more detail.

Common Forms of Business Organization

The most common forms of business organizations are sole proprietorships, partnerships, corporations, limited liability companies and limited liability partnerships. A sole proprietorship is a business operated by a person as his own personal property. The enterprise is merely an extension of the individual owner. Agents and employees may be hired but the owner has all the responsibility for the development and growth of the business and personal liability for all of its profits and losses.

A partnership is a voluntary association of people who work together to carry on a business for profit. No formal or written agreement is necessary to create a general partnership. All that is required is that the parties intend to work together to run a business for profit. There are two types of partnerships. In a general partnership, each of the partners is an owner and is entitled to share in the profits of the business. In addition, each partner in a general partnership typically has unlimited personal liability and is jointly and severally liable for the damages resulting from the wrongdoing committed by any of the other partners. Joint liability means that the partners can be sued as a group; several liability means that the partners can be sued individually. Thus, there are benefits and risks involved in the formation of a general partnership. In a limited partnership, there are typically two classes of partners: general partners and limited partners. General partners may participate in the management of the partnership and are personally liable for damages. Limited partners, however, are allowed to share in the profits of the business but may not engage in management of the partnership. Also, limited partners are not personally liable for the partnership's debts.

A corporation is a business entity that is separate and distinct from its owners. Thus, the corporation continues to exist even if owners leave the corporation or die. Owners, known as shareholders, do not engage in management responsibilities but rather elect a board of directors to set the course for the corporation and appoint officers to carry out the daily tasks of managing the corporation. A corporation can acquire and hold property in its name and it can sue or be sued in its name. Most corporations are either close corporations or publicly held. A close corporation is held by a family or small group of people. A publicly held corporation is owned by shareholders from the general public who have invested in the corporation. Corporations are formed by filing articles of incorporation and other documents with the appropriate state agency.

Most states permit businesses to operate as limited liability companies ("LLCs") or limited liability partnerships ("LLPs"). LLCs are similar to corporations in that they require the filing of articles of organization with...

This article will provide an overview of commercial law. The article will explain the basic subjects that are the building blocks of commercial law. These subjects include sales, secured transactions and negotiable instruments. In addition, this article also explains common issues that are covered by commercial law, such as consumer credit protections, debt collection practices and creditors' rights. Other important factors that are central to commercial law are introduced, including warranties, remedies for breach of contract and transport and delivery requirements. Finally, the article describes how commercial law provides important regulations in business activities that are central to the dynamic and global marketplace today, including leasing agreements, construction contracts and import and export regulations. Commercial law has developed out of merchant trading routes and customs dating back to the Middle Ages. Yet today, in the United States, commercial law is largely governed by the provisions and requirements covering all aspects of commerce that are set out in the Uniform Commercial Code and that have been adopted by most states. This article explains some of the most important aspects of commercial law that affect many common business transactions today.

Keywords Bailments; Chattel-Paper; Collateral; Consumer Sales; Electronic Funds Transfer; Inventory; Pledge; Secured Lending

Business Law: Commercial Law

Overview

Commercial law relates to those branches of the law that deal with or affect commercial and business activities. These areas generally include contract law, agency law, the law of sales, the law of negotiable instruments and labor law. Much of modern commercial law, particularly as it relates to the law of sales, negotiable instruments and contract negotiation, traces back to the trade customs that were routinely used by merchants and traders from the Middle Ages to resolve commercial disputes. These trade customs were later recognized by merchant courts, which were then assimilated into English and American common law traditions.

For many matters relating to routine commercial transactions, merchants and businesses follow the laws set forth in the Uniform Commercial Code ("UCC"). In 1952, the United States grouped many laws pertaining to commercial transactions into a generic body of law that could be used by all states to regulate all aspects of commercial formation, business dealings and dispute resolution. To date, 49 states have adopted the UCC, with Louisiana only using portions of it. The UCC is a compilation of rules that apply to all aspects of commercial transactions, from contract formation and default, to shipping and delivery requirements, to credit transactions and bankruptcy. The following sections provide a more in-depth explanation of the basic concepts in commercial law.

Basic Concepts in Commercial Law

At its core, commerce involves the production, distribution and sales of goods and services. As markets transformed from producers and consumers involved in local trade to companies and financial institutions dealing in interstate and even international commerce, a broader range of laws were needed to facilitate and regulate this growth. Even more, the uses of credit and money substitutes (such as checks and promissory notes) also grew, and thus the bodies of law that govern secured transactions and negotiable instruments developed in response. The following sections explain the fundamental legal principles that form the basis of sales, secured transactions and negotiable instruments.

Sales

Sales are the most common of all commercial transactions. Sales may consist of a cash transaction, a sales contract, a purchase made with a credit or debit card or even an ad hoc contract that is quickly drawn up on a napkin. Article 2 of the UCC governs the sale of goods. The UCC defines a sale as the transfer of title to goods from seller to buyer for a price. The price can be money, other goods, real estate or services. Goods are essentially defined as movable, tangible, personal property. For example, the sale of an automobile, sofa or necklace is considered a sale of goods. The UCC requires that all sales contracts be performed in good faith, which means merchants must act with honesty and candor in their business dealings with consumers and must observe reasonable commercial standards in dealing with other merchants. A court may refuse to enforce all or any part of a contract that it finds to be unconscionable, either because of unfairness in the bargaining process or because the terms of the contract are grossly unfair or oppressive.

Article 2 of the UCC regulates every phase of a transaction for the sale of goods and provides remedies for problems that may arise. Prior to the adoption of the UCC, sales contracts were governed by the common law of contracts. However, the common law of contracts did not adequately address the specialized transactions that are routine in the sales of goods. Thus, while many of the principles of the common law of contracts are reflected in the UCC, there are important differences. One such difference lies in the acceptance of an offer. Under the common law of contracts, an acceptance must objectively manifest intent to contract. Under the UCC, a contract for the sale of goods may be formed in any manner sufficient to show agreement, including conduct by both parties that recognizes the existence of a contract, even without an explicit expression of acceptance.

Another difference is that at common law, an acceptance that added qualifications or conditions or in any way varied from the terms of the original offer was treated as a rejection and counteroffer. This principle came to be known as the "mirror image rule." The UCC, however, will recognize the existence of a contract even if the acceptance contains additional or different terms from those of the offer, provided that the acceptance reveals intent to contract and is not expressly conditioned on the original offeror agreeing to additional or different terms. As a result, many common law counteroffers that would have been considered rejections and counteroffers are converted into acceptances under the UCC.

A final difference between the common law of contracts and the unique provisions of Article 2 regarding the sale of goods relates to the shipment of nonconforming goods, or items that do not exactly match the descriptions of the items requested. If goods are shipped in response to an offer to purchase the goods, and the items shipped do not exactly match the request, at common law, acceptance of an offer by performing the offeror's request was only valid if the acceptance matched the request. Under the UCC, the shipment of nonconforming goods operates both as an acceptance of the offer that creates a binding agreement, and a breach of the agreement if there is no time left by which the seller could send the exact requested items and still meet the buyer's deadline. If the time specified for delivery in the contract has not yet arrived, the seller may still notify the buyer that the shipment was an accommodation rather than an acceptance, and in this case the shipment becomes a counteroffer that the buyer may accept or reject. If the buyer accepts the shipment after being notified of the accommodation, the buyer is presumed to have accepted the seller's terms through conduct, and the existence of a binding contract is recognized. If the buyer does not accept the accommodation, the seller may still send conforming goods within the contract time without being in breach of the contract.

Secured Transactions

Secured transactions arise when one party borrows money from a bank, individual or other lending institution to purchase goods on credit. Lenders generally require more than just a promise to repay the money in order to extend credit to the borrower. The law of secured transactions governs the security agreements that are formed between a lender and borrower, and the collateral interests that secure the loan by acting as security for the borrower's obligation to repay the loan.

A security agreement is an agreement that the lender may retake the collateral that secures a loan should the borrower default on the loan. Lenders prefer that borrowers simply repay the loans they have borrowed in full. However, because lenders realize that financial hardships can arise, the lender takes a security interest in the property to serve as a protection against its losses in the event of a borrower's default. In other words, if the borrower goes bankrupt, the lender may take possession of the specified security property and resell the property to recoup the losses it sustained from the borrower's default.

In general, the law of secured transactions is a form of contract law. Like sales, secured transactions are governed by state law, but most states have adopted the UCC. Article 9 of the UCC deals specifically with secured transactions. In order for a secured transaction to be effective, the creditor must take certain steps to attach and perfect its security interest in the collateral. First, the creditor must attach the security interest. When a debtor has signed a security agreement that reasonably identifies the collateral, given value and acquired rights in the collateral, attachment of the security interest is complete and becomes enforceable against the debtor with respect to the collateral described in the security agreement.

However, attachment generally does not provide the creditor with rights against third parties who might also have an interest in the same collateral. If the secured party wants to protect the collateral against claims to the property of other creditors or third parties, the secured party must perfect the security interest in the collateral. A security interest may be perfected when a secured party files a financing statement in the appropriate public office or takes possession of the collateral. Some security interests are automatically perfected when they attach to particular collateral. Thus, once all of the applicable steps required for perfection are taken, the security interest is perfected.

Perfection basically serves as a form of notice that the creditor has a security interest in the collateral, and because of this notice, the creditor's rights in the collateral are superior to certain third parties who might also have an interest in the same collateral, depending on the priority of the creditors. Because perfection involves filing a public notice, other creditors and interested parties are considered to be constructively informed of the creditor's interest in the collateral and the priority of the creditor's claims against all other interested parties. Creditors who fail to attach and perfect their security interests or who do so improperly risk the priority of their claims to the collateral in the event a borrower defaults on his credit obligations.

Negotiable Instruments

A negotiable instrument is a check, promissory note, bill of exchange, security or other document that represents money that is to be transferred to another person. The UCC defines negotiable instruments as signed documents that readily transfer money and that provide a promise to pay the bearer a sum of money at a future date or on demand. If the instrument does not meet these requirements, it is nonnegotiable and is treated as a simple contract rather than as a negotiable instrument. If an instrument is incomplete because the party omitted a necessary element, such as the amount payable or the designation of the payee, the instrument is not negotiable until it is completed. If an instrument is ambiguous, such as if it is unclear whether the instrument is a draft or a note, the UCC allows the holder to treat it as either one and present it for payment to the drawee. However, certain rules of construction apply in that handwritten changes overrule typewritten or printed words and words overrule figures unless the words are unclear. In a valid negotiable instrument, the money is transferred through delivery following an endorsement of the instrument, such as when the instrument is signed.

In general, there are two types of instruments. The first is called a draft. A draft is a document that orders the payment of money, such as a check. A check has three parties to it: one person, known as the drawer, writes a check ordering the drawee, such as a bank, to pay a certain sum of money to a third person, the payee. The second type of negotiable instrument is a note, such as a promissory note. A note is a promise to pay a sum of money.

The law of negotiable instruments is generally governed by state law. However, Article 3 of the UCC, which deals solely with negotiable instruments, has been adopted by most states and sets out uniform requirements and provisions that regulate the exchange of negotiable instruments. In general, the law of negotiable instruments is similar to contract law. However, a negotiable instrument may be distinguished from an ordinary contract by the fact that a negotiable instrument can be drafted in a way that makes it transferable to other parties, whereas a contract is generally an agreement between two persons who are bound to one another according to the terms of their contract.

Common Issues in Commercial Law

Commercial law covers many issues that commonly arise in commercial dealings. These issues include matters that relate to credit transactions and to the consumer credit laws that have been enacted to protect consumers in such transactions. Also, when borrowers default on their credit obligations, commercial law regulates permissible debt collection practices. Finally, commercial law includes provisions that outline the rights of various types of creditors to a debtor's assets in the event of a default or bankruptcy. The following sections will discuss these issues in more detail.

Consumer Credit Laws

Credit allows lenders to extend money to people who promise to repay in the money in the future, so that they can make substantial purchases today. Credit is vital to our commerce system. It is used everyday by businesses and consumers. Today, consumer credit laws provide consumers with many protections regarding credit transactions. Before these laws were enacted, creditors sometimes took harsh or draconian measures to collect the unpaid portion of any debt they were owed by borrowers. In addition, creditors sometimes charged usurious interest rates that made repayment almost impossible. To combat these practices, consumer protection laws in the United States regulate the information creditors must provide to borrowers before extending credit and limit the tactics that creditors may use to collect overdue payments. While all states have enacted their own form of consumer protection regulations, the following statutes have been enacted at the federal level. Thus, creditors and borrowers in all states are bound by these statutes, even if individual states have not enacted additional consumer protection legislation.

The Equal Credit Opportunity Act

The Equal Credit Opportunity Act ("ECOA") forbids lenders and other creditors from discrimination in regards to credit terms based on race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, marital status or receipt of income from public assistance programs. Under the ECOA, a lender can consider legitimate factors such as earnings, savings and credit records when making a credit decision. An applicant must be notified within 30 days after completion of the application whether or not the loan has been approved. If credit is denied, notice of the denial must be provided to the applicant in writing and must explain the specific reasons for the denial of credit or advise the applicant of his right to request an explanation. Any reasons for denial that are disclosed must relate to the factors actually considered, and the creditor must disclose the specific reasons for any adverse action.

The Fair Credit Reporting Act

The Fair Credit Reporting Act ("FCRA") regulates the disclosure of consumer credit reports by credit reporting agencies. It requires that credit agencies investigate disputed items in consumer credit reports and establish procedures for correcting mistakes in a credit record. The purpose of the FCRA is to protect consumers from erroneous information appearing on their credit reports that may have a negative impact on their ability to obtain credit or to obtain credit at favorable terms. The FCRA gives consumers the right to view a copy of their credit report whenever a credit application they submit is rejected. Credit agencies must advise consumers within 30 days of the application rejection of their right to receive a free written copy of their complete credit report file. If a consumer views her file and notices an inaccuracy, she can ask the credit agency to correct or delete the inaccurate portion. If the credit agency refuses, the consumer may write a 100-word statement describing her own perspective regarding the inaccuracy. This statement will then become a part of future credit reports.

The Truth in Lending Act

The Truth in Lending Act, a provision of the Consumer Credit Protection Act, requires lenders to provide certain information so that consumers can understand the terms of the loan and can use the information to shop for the best credit terms. The Truth in Lending Act requires creditors to disclose to consumers, in writing and before any agreement is signed, both the finance charge and the annual percentage rate of the finance charge in a credit sale or loan. In addition, lenders must provide information regarding any annual fees, payment due dates, amount of any late fees, minimum payment required, the length of the grace period and the name and contact information for the company providing the credit.

Debt Collection

If a borrower fails to meet his credit obligations, any of his creditors may commence a lawsuit and obtain a judgment against him for his remaining obligation. In addition, a creditor may pursue other avenues to collect the balance of the debt, such as repossessing any collateral used as security, foreclosing on collateral used as security and garnishing the debtor's wages. However, in attempting to collect such debts, creditors must remain within the bounds of any state and/or federal debt collection laws to which they are subject.

Fair Debt Collection Practices Act

At the federal level, the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act forbids abusive debt collection practices. It outlaws debtor harassment and regulates third party collectors, such as collection agencies, debt collection offices of original creditors and lawyers who are hired by creditor agencies to help collect overdue bills. While original creditors are not regulated by the Act, their practices are regulated by similar state laws. The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act requires that collection agencies begin any debt collection communications with an introductory letter that lists the amount of debt, the name of the original creditor, the period of time in which the debtor may dispute the debt and the obligation of the collection agency to send the debtor verification of the debt if the debt is disputed.

The Fair Credit Billing Act

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