2. Literature Review
3. Research Methodology
4. Company Profile
5. Data Analysis & Interpretation
6. Findings of the Study
8. Limitations of the Study
9. Summary & Conclusion
11. Appendix - Questionnaire
The world is moving with very high speed and managing an organization has become more complex than ever before. There is a competition going on between companies to attract and retain quality human resource in order to be ahead of its competitors in a particular industry. At this backdrop, Quality of Work Life (QWL) has emerged as one of the most important aspect of Job that ensures long term association of the employees with the organization.
Quality of work life and employee satisfaction at Max New York Life Insurance Company is considered to be the most critical aspect. It is found that there are few facilities which are unsatisfactory, and few facilities are to be provided by the organization in order to maintain, retain the employees as well the high productivity of the organization. Hence the management has to look upon the facilities that are not available and is the points where employees are dissatisfied with unavailability of the facility.
Because of the facilities that are unavailable will lead for low productivity, stress, unsatisfaction, etc. At the same time it is observed that when the employees are provided with internal, personal, physical, spiritual working environments, will lead for higher productivity of the organization.
This study is attempted to understand the impact of QWL on employee satisfaction and organizational productivity with special reference to Max New York Life Insurance Company Ltd. at Hyderabad.
Importance of the Study
There is a much about the quality every aspect viz. quality product, quality of material and inputs there in, quality of packing, quality of product development and quality of service. The quality of work life and quality of life, which is pivotal aspects in everyone’s work life. This also bring employee satisfaction
You can obtain man’s physical presence at a given place, and a measured number of skilled muscular motions per hour or day. But the enthusiasm, initiative, joy, loyalty, you can’t obtain by devotion of hearts, mind and souls. Apart from this if the employee is provided with other extrinsic and intrinsic benefits then this will lead for high productivity and results in employee satisfaction too.
To introduce the hard practices in to the organization it is the important to have encouraging atmosphere. QWL is one of the most important factors, which leads to such favorable atmosphere. It produces more humanized jobs. It attempts to serve the higher order needs of employees are human resources that are to be developed rather than simply used
QWL leads to an atmosphere that encourages than to improve their skill. It also leads to have good interpersonal relations and highly motivated employees who strive for their development. QWL will ensure enthusiasm work environment with opportunities for every one to give is best. Such job will provide job satisfaction and pride to the company.
Objective of the Study
- To understand the relationship between QWL and employee satisfaction.
- To know the level of employee satisfaction
- To know the measure taken by the organization to improve the quality of work life of the employee in the organization.
- To know whether QWL leads to improved productivity of the organization.
- To study whether quality of work life motivates the employees to learn further for present and future roles.
Scope of the study
The world today is a world of revolutionary changes. It gives us a change to scan the 20th century and foresee the 21st century new challenges in various field are being accepted. The advantage of the information technology along with the industrialization in India demands a highly motivated, skilled and goal oriented work force.
Quality of work life has become the watchword in today’s industrial scene, because when there is proper quality of work life for the employees it will lead to the satisfaction of the employees, and hence the scope of the study was to analyze quality of work life and employee satisfaction in Max new York Life Insurance Company, Secunderabad, and study its effecting developing the Human Resource and increase in productivity.
This study is attempted to explore various dimensions of Quality of Work Life (QWL) and factors affecting QWL.
Concept of Quality of Work Life (QWL)
The term quality of work life appeared in Research journals and press in USA only in 1970s. It refers to the favorable or unfavorable aspect of a job environment for people working in the organization.
J. Richard and J.Joy defined QWL as the degree to which members of a work organization are able to satisfy personnel needs through their experience in the organizations. Richard E. Walton explained QWL in term of following eight conditions;
1. Adequate and fair compensation: The committee on fair wages defines wages as the wage which is above the living age.
2. Safe and healthy working conditions: Most of the organizations provide safe and healthy working conditions.
3. Opportunity to use and develop human capacities: The worker can exercise more control over his or her work, QWL provides for opportunities like autonomy in work and participation in planning in order to use human capabilities.
4. Opportunity for career growth: Opportunities for promotions are limited for the employees due to either educational barriers or due to limited opening at the higher level. QWL provides opportunity for continued growth and security and by expanding employs knowledge and qualifications.
5. Social integration in the work place: it can be established by creating freedom from prejudice, supporting primary work groups, a sense of community and inter personal open legalitarianism and upward mobility.
6. Constitutionalism in the work organizations: constitutionalism protection is provided to employees on such matters as privacy, free speech, equity and due process.
7. Work and quality of life: QWL provides for the balanced relationship among work, non work and family life should not be strained by working hours, including business travel, transfers, vacations etc.
8. Social Relevance of work: QWL is concerned about the establishment of social relevance to work in a socially beneficial banner.
Specific Issues in QWL
Besides normal wages, salaries, fringe benefits etc.., the specific issues are being identified by the human resource managers on regular basis. Following issues are highly relevant and determine the Quality of Work Life in any organization;
1. Pay and stability of employment: Good pay dominates most of the factors in employee satisfaction. Alternative means of providing wages should be developed to increase the cost of living index, profession tax etc..,
2. Occupational stress: It’s a condition of strain on employee emotions. Stress is caused due to irritability, hyper excitation or depression, unstable behavior, fatigue, stirring heavy smoking and drug abuse has to be identified.
3. Organizational health Programmes: Its helps to aim at educating about health Programmes, means of maintaining and improving of health.
4. Alternative work schedules: Includes flexi times, work at home, staggered hours, reduce work hours, part time employment.
5. Participative management and control of work: The trade unions and workers believe that workers participation in management and decision - making improves QWL.
6. Recognition: Rewarding system, congratulating the employees for their achievement, job enrichment, offering membership in clubs or association, vehicles, etc recognizes the employees.
7. Congenial worker-supervisor relations: This gives the worker a sense of social association, belongingness, achievement of work results etc.
8. Grievance procedure: Employees will have a fair treatment when the company gives them the opportunity to ventilate their grievances and present their case sincerely rather than settling the problem arbitrarily.
9. Adequacy of resources: Resources should match with states objectives; otherwise employees will not be able to attain the objectives.
10. Seniority and meriting promotions: Seniority is considered as basis for promotion. Merit is considered as the basis for advancement for managerial people.
11. Employment on permanent basis: It gives security and leads to higher order QWL.
QWL and Employees Satisfaction
Employee satisfaction is very importa]nt aspect for any organization in order to ensure its effective functioning. In today’s competitive world we see organizations are spending lot of time and money on employee satisfaction in an effort to improve productivity, increase customer satisfaction, and also to help the organization needs. Executive should maintain a satisfied work forces, hence the employee satisfaction and QWL directly effects the company ability to properly serve its customers and if it is not measured. It cannot be effectively improved and maintained.
If the company which does not measured and improved the employees satisfaction may face increasing turnover, declining productivity from the people that remain, and limited ability to attract and retain qualified replacements. Dissatisfaction with working life is a problem, which affects all workers at one time or another. Hence the sustained vitality and profitability of the organization is clearly linked to the satisfaction of its work force.
All the employees mostly feel they are working harder, faster and longer hours than even before and hence employees are attempting to determine what kind of investments in staff really payoff, and if there is no balance the stress of the employee leads to lack of commitment to the corporation, poor productivity and even leaving the company. The problem of the employees can be solved by many methods employer should try to address the employee turnover and job satisfaction issues. The issue must be first determined in order to take effective action plan towards employees’ satisfaction. Some companies take or implement by convinced focus groups and conducted employee satisfaction survey to find out their employees feel to determine what they can do to make their employee happy. Employers have found beneficial to allow work assignment for their employees. This is another way to improve employee productivity and morale.
If we see the other alternative assignment even they are widely used today-they are telecommuting, flexi time, and alternative work schedule. Four types of flexi time include
2. Gliding time
3. Variable day
QWL to improve and eliminate job stress, employers can also make efforts to the aware of the workload and job demands, employer need to examine employee training, communication, reward system, coworker relationship and work environment.
If the employees are given freedom to choose their own work schedules; quality and productivity of the work increases. Because of this opportunity given to the employee will also bring to the responsibility for finishing work within specified time.
Non- financial rewards often have more impact than finance reorganization in attaining job satisfaction rewarding the employees is important. Job satisfaction can be improved by the recognizing the employees’ performance through providing other works, benefits, and non-financial rewards. Job satisfaction is a motivator in work endeavors, and QWL is a key indicator of the overall quality of human experience in the work place. QWL expresses a clear way of thinking about people, their work, and other organization in which their career are fulfilled. QWL establishes a clear objective that high performance can be achieved with high job satisfaction. Unclear targets and objectives and poor communications can contribute to dissatisfaction and eventually lead to poor work performance.
QWL and Organizational Productivity
The term productivity must not be confused with production. Productivity is a ratio while production relates to a volume. Increased production does not necessarily mean increase in productivity. Input of resources goes up in direct proportion to the increase in output; the productivity will remain the same.
Peoples are the important assets of any organization because only through people all other resources are converted into utilities. Productivity consciousness has acquired world wide momentum. Higher productivity is very important for any firm for the survival of any nation, and its stands for proper utilization of available resources to check the best results with minimum costs .The only path to national prosperity is to improve the productivity in the industrial sphere.
Not only the firm’s survival, the productivity denotes the efficiency of the various input’s which are converted in to different goods and services. It’s a multifaceted concept it also signifies the ratio between inputs and output.
All organizations regard work life benefits as an investment designed, among other things, to attract, and retain talent. Such benefits recognizes the growing demands on the lives of people, particularly at times when jobs are The impact of HRM practices and policies on firm performance is an important aspect in the fields of HRM, industrial and organizational psychology. All the organizations do expect higher productivity with less resources and investment.
The survey made by the Association of executive search consultant (AESC) have revealed a sea change in the attitude of corporate high flyers, with a growing number rejecting organization hours and scramble the corporate leader in favor of better QWL. Mostly in such (AESC) survey it is found that they have not achieved a satisfactory work-life balance and a similar proportion felt that their work life balance had changed for the worse over the past five years. It should be recognized that the long term productivity improvement can be achieved by the human factor through positive and innovative attitudes. There’s an argument that high performance work practice, including comprehensive employee recruitment and selection procedures, incentive compensation and performance management systems and extensive employee involvement and training, firms current potential employees, increase their motivation, and enhance retention of quality employees while encouraging non-performance to leave the firm.
Among human resource professionals there is a growing consensus that organizational human resource policies can, if properly configured provide a direct and economically significant contribution to firms’ performance. Both intermediate employment out comes and firm-level measures of finance performance are dependent variables.
Today work organization is continually changing to meet new demands, including the use of new technologies and work place innovation. Among its main finding, technology and working conditions status. Jobs can be divided into four categories depending upon different work organization contexts viz. Active, Passive, High and Low strain jobs.
Work autonomy and work intensity are important factors within these contexts. The cause of stress can be the intensification of work. In the manufacturing sector industry it is commonly stated that quality drives productivity is a source of grater revenue work organizations is continually changing to meet new demands, including the use of new technologies and work place innovations.
The Relationship Between Quality of Work Life and Job Satisfaction of Faculty Members in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences
Fatihe Kermansaravi,1Ali Navidian,1Shahindokht Navabi Rigi,1 and Fariba Yaghoubinia1
Quality of work life is one of the most important factors for human motivating and improving of job satisfaction.
The current study was carried out aimed to determine the relationship between quality of work life and job satisfaction in faculty members of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences.
In this descriptive-analytic study, 202 faculty members of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences in 2012 were entered the study through census. The job satisfaction questionnaire of Smith and Kendall and Walton Quality of Work Life questionnaire were used for data collection. Validity and reliability of questionnaires were confirmed in previous studies. Data analysis was done using SPSS 18. The Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression tests were used for data analysis.
The mean score of quality of work life was 121/30±37/08 and job satisfaction was 135/98±33/78. There was a significant and positive correlation between job satisfaction of faculty members and their quality of work life (P=0.003). In addition, two components of quality of work life “adequate and fair compensation” (β=0.3) and “Social Integration” (β=0.4) can predict job satisfaction of faculty members.
According to correlation between job satisfaction and quality of work life in faculty members, job satisfaction can be improved through the changing and manipulating the components of quality of work life and in this way; the suitable environment for organization development should be provided.
Keywords: quality of work life, job satisfaction, faculty members
Quality of work life is a comprehensive concept which is consisted of physical and psychological health, economic situations, personal belief and interaction with environment (Khorsandi et al., 2010). In contemporary management, the concept of quality of work life has been changed to a social issue, while in the past decades only the personal life was emphasized (Mirkamali & Narenji Sani, 2008). The meaning of quality of work life is subjective imagination and the perception of organization personnel about the physical and psychological desirability of work environment and their work situations (Yavari, Amir Tash, & Tondnevis, 2009).
Walton (1973) defined the quality of work life as the personnel reaction to work; especially its essential outcome in relation to job needs satisfaction and psychological health. According to this definition, quality of work life emphasizes on personal outcomes, work experiences and how to improve the work in order to meeting the personal needs. Walton presented a theoretical model for explaining the quality of work life that is consisted of adequate and fair compensation, safe and healthy environment, constitutionalism in organization, preparing the opportunity for continued growth and security, social relevance of work life, social integration, development of human capabilities and the total life space (Walton, 1973).
From 1980 to 2006, many researches have been done about quality of work life and results showed that there is positive relationship between quality of work life and some variables in organization such as job satisfaction. Job satisfaction has been defined as idea, perception and positive attitudes and emotions of individuals about profession which are affected by some factors such as work environment, organizational system, work environment relationship and socio-cultural factors (Mirkamali & Narenji Sani, 2008; Armstrong, 2006).
Qualitative and quantitative researches show that the most experts have consensus on factors such as work situations and work type, interactions with manager and colleagues, ways of preferment in organization, salary and benefit as the major predictor factors of job satisfaction (HongLu, While, & Barriball, 2007).
The mission of quality of work life is the creating of job satisfaction for personnel and helping to organization for employee selection and retention. Quality of work life is one of the most important factors for human motivating and improving job satisfaction (Royuela, Jordi, & Jourdi, 2009).
University as the most important educational and research center has an effective role in community promotion toward educational, social, cultural and economic goals and the faculty member is one of the main components of educational system. Supporting of human resources and helping to appropriate efficiency of these resources and academic elite is the guarantee of community development and progress (Oplatka, 2009).
According to expanded duties of faculty members such as training of skilled and committed human resources, research, therapeutic services, executive activity and personal development, attention to this topic is very important (Eklund, 2008).
Previous studies showed that there is positive relationship between job satisfaction and quality of work life. In study which was conducted about faculty members in Bangladesh, results showed that all of the aspects of quality of work life have a positive relationship with job satisfaction (Tabassum, 2012).
Results of Ballou’s study (2007) also showed that the satisfied employees work with favorites in work environment and are loyal to organization and help to increase the efficiency and capital in organization (Ballou, Norman, & Goodwin, 2007). Results of other studies in Columbia also showed that the faculty’s knowledge of work life has strong and direct impact on satisfaction or incentive to withdraw from the university (Dolan et al., 2008).
This relationship also has been reported in studies which were done in Iran (Mirkamali & Narenji Sani, 2008; Teymouri, 2008). In study by Soltanzadeh (2012), components such as constitutionalism in organization, social relevance of work life, social integration were the best predictors of job satisfaction in faculty members (Soltanzadeh, Ghalvandy, & Fatahy, 2012).
In universities in Iran, formal employment and job security changed to stressful issues because of some factors such as the long process of faculty recruitment, scholarships allocation, stated the need. Workload and teaching hours of faculty also hinder some activities in other areas such as research and service (Noor Shahi & Samie, 2011). Many studies have been done in other countries about job satisfaction of faculty members.
But, the conducted studies about quality of work life in Iran are less and limit, thus it is necessary that the more and comprehensive research conduct in this topic. It is very important especially when the increase of quality of work life and its relationship with job satisfaction is propounded.
No study has been done concerning of quality of work life and job satisfaction in faculty members in Zahedan University of medical sciences. Moreover; according to importance of these two variables for advancing the academic goals and creating more efficiency and also some situations in Sistan & Baluchestan province in Iran such as shortage of amenities, this study conducted aimed to determine the relationship between quality of work life and job satisfaction in faculty members.
In this descriptive-analytical study, all of the faculty members who were 202 people and were employed in Zahedan University of medical sciences in 2012 entered to study through census. The contract, committed to serving and tuition teachers were excluded from the study. Data were gathered through information form (age, gender, marital status, work experience, academic degree and employment status) and the Walton quality of work life questionnaire (Walton, 1973) and Job Descriptive Index by Kendall and Smith (Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969).
Quality of work life questionnaire is consisting of 40 items which has been designed in 5-point Likert scale (never 1, rarely 2, sometimes 3, most of time 4, always 5). 5 items are related to adequate and fair compensation, 5 items are about safe and healthy work environment, 5 items are about constitutionalism in organization, 5 about preparing the opportunity for continued growth and security, 5 items are related to social relevance of working life, 5 about social integration, 5 about development of human capabilities and 5 about the total life space.
The score of each item is from 1 to 5. Thus, the overall score of this questionnaire will be in range of 40–200. Validity and reliability of questionnaire was confirmed in many studies and α=0.92 has been reported (Mirkamali & Narenji Sani, 2008; Yavari, Amir Tash, & Tondnevis, 2009). Job Descriptive Index questionnaire was made by Kendall in 1969 and it is one of the most common tools for measuring job satisfaction. This scale assess the 5 various aspects of job satisfaction.
There are some criteria for each aspect that measure the individual’s feelings about job. The five aspects of this index are consisting of five scales of work type (10 items), supervisor or manager (10 items), colleagues (10 items), preferment in organization (5 items) and salary and benefit (6 items).
Score of each item is in range of 1–5. Thus; the overall scores of job satisfaction varies in range of 41-205. The more score of this questionnaire is indicative of the more job satisfaction. The internal consistency of this questionnaire was reported as 0.89–0.92 by Kendal and Halin (Smith, Kendall, & Hulin, 1969). This questionnaire was used in many studies in Iran and its validity and reliability was confirmed (Heydari, 1998; Ranjbar, & Vahidshahi, 2007).
In study by Zamini and Hoseyninasab, this questionnaire was completed by 20 people and chronbach’s alpha=0.92 was obtained for the whole of questionnaire and for subscales was 0.85, 0.96, 0.92, 0.87 and 0.84 respectively (Zamini & Hoseyninasab, 2008). The mean score was calculated for each of the components of jab satisfaction and also total score of questionnaire. In current study questionnaires were delivered to faculty members by educational employees for completing during three weeks and then were returned to researcher.
Ethical considerations were adhered, informed consent was obtained and assurance of confidentiality and anonymity was done. Data analysis was done using SPSS 18. Central tendency indexes were used for description of quantitative data and for qualitative variables, frequency and percentage were used. Also, Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression were used for measuring the correlation between quality of work life and job satisfaction.
The mean age of faculty members was 40.91±8 with range of 28–59 years old and the mean of their work experience was 11.9±8.14 with range of 1–33. Demographic characteristics of subjects are presented in Table 1.
Demographic characteristics of faculty members
The mean score of quality of work life was 121.3 (SD=37.08). The highest mean was related to development of human capabilities (18.78±4.5) and the least mean was for constitutionalism in organization (12.84±3.92). The mean score of job satisfaction was 135.98±33.78 and the highest mean was related to job characteristics aspect (36.65±7.29) and the least mean was for ways of preferment (16.44±5.19)
A direct and significant correlation was found between quality of work life and job satisfaction of faculty members (r=0.23, p=0.003). Also, there was direct and significant correlation between aspects of social relevance, the total life space and social integration with job satisfaction (Table 2).
Correlation between quality of work life score and its components with job satisfaction
According to significant values (p=0.000, F=4.92) and the multiple regression analysis about components of quality of work life with job satisfaction, it can be concluded that the regression model was composed of 8 independent variables (aspects of quality of work life) and 1 dependent variable that can explain the changes in job satisfaction.
Based on Multiple regression equations (Y=a+b1x1+b2x2+……bkxk), R2 value shows that the 17 percent of all of the changes in job satisfaction are associated to 8 independence variables in this equation (aspects of quality of work life). In other words, set of independent variables predict the 17 percent of variance of job satisfaction.
β Coefficient (regression coefficients) is indicated that the adequate and fair compensation (β=0.3) and social integration (β=0.4) are predictors of job satisfaction (Table 3).
Multiple regression analysis of each component of quality of work life with job satisfaction 11, 22
According to study results, there is positive and significant relationship between quality of work life and job satisfaction which was indicating that better quality of work life is associated with more job satisfaction in faculty members.
Results of studies which have been done in Iran such as Soltanzadeh et al. (2012), Zakerian et al. (2012), Shahbazi et al. (2011), Heidarie et al. (2010), Goudarznand-Chegini et al. (2010), Saedi et al. (2010), Mirkamali and NarenjiSani (2008) corroborated the results of current study.
Also, the results of studies in other countries such as HongLu (2007), Hua (2006), Conklin (2008), Heinonen and Sarima (2009), Adhikari (2010) and Rose (2006) confirmed the relationship between quality of work life and job satisfaction (HongLu, While, & Barriball, 2007; Hua, 2006; Conklin, 2008; Heinonen, & Saarimaa, 2009; Adhikari, & Gautam, 2010; Rose et al., 2006).
Recognition of related factors with job satisfaction in faculty members is very important, because we can increase job satisfaction and prepare the conditions in order to organizational growth with manipulating and changing the components of quality of work life. The existence of components of quality of work life provide situation for satisfaction and peace, responsibility, optimal use of Physical space and educational tools for faculty members.
The study by Conklin (2008) showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between quality of work life and job satisfaction and its changes (Heinonen & Saarimaa, 2009). Results of study in Europe (2008) concerning the health and management efficiency demonstrated that the style of work life as a psychological factor in work environment can increase the efficiency of staff (Kirsten, 2008).
The results of current study about relationship between components of quality of work life and job satisfaction showed that there is a direct and significant relationship between aspects of social dependency, life space and social integration. Zakerian (2012), Hosseini (2008), Othman (2009) and Lawler (2007) stated a significant relationship between aspects of work life and job satisfaction (Zakerian et al., 2014; Hosseini et al., 2008; Othman, & Mok, 2009; Lawler, Chan Huang, & Yilei, 2007).
According to direct relationship of component of social relevance which is referred to the perception of faculty about social responsibility in system and managers valuing of community rules, thus; it can be created a sense of duty through participation of members in decision making and team working. Also, it can be realized this aspect with using of faculty’s thought and idea in policy.
Thus, the organizations can improve all of the aspects of quality of work life in order to increase of job satisfaction. They can create the situations in work environment for demonstrating the abilities and creativities of staff and create proper opportunities for success, safety, job preferment and staff dynamics.
The aspect of work life space can be strengthened through establishment a balance between work life and other parts of life such as leisure time, education, family life and; with reduction of sensible and insensible job stress.
Results of regression analysis which was done in order to prediction of job satisfaction through the components of quality of work life showed that social integration and adequate and fair compensation are the most important predictors of job satisfaction respectively.
In other studies; constitutionalism, social integration and preparing the opportunity for continued growth and security (Mirkamali & NarenjiSani, 2008), professional satisfaction and status of life space (Zakerian et al., 2014) and organizational climate (safety work environment, providing job opportunities) were as the most important predictors of job satisfaction. Lawler et al. (2007) believed that the safe and healthy work environment, adequate and fair compensation; and job security have positive effect on organizational commitment (Lawler, Chan Huang & Yilei, 2007). The reasons of some differences between results of previous studies with current study are the difference in research population, level of education or difference in data collection methods.
Social integration was one of the factors affecting on quality of work life in faculty members. According to study results, the faculty members were dissatisfied about the work space that is the most important factor in encouraging them for doing their duties and responsibilities and creating a sense of belonging to the organization.
As a result, it is recommended that the university encourage faculty members to creativity and innovation through the preparing of appropriate context for teaching and supporting them by colleagues and managers.
Judging faculty members about objective and observable conditions of organization is affected by their perception and interpretation of organizational environment. Thus; the university can strengthen the sense of belongingness to organization in faculty members through the creating of appropriate and positive working climate and also, can create the proper perception about social responsibility in organization through the using of their expertise and experiences for problem solving in organization.
The next influential factor in job satisfaction with the least mean in both groups of basic science and clinical faculty was fair compensation. Result showed that there is no a proper balance between workload and consumed time and energy and also community standards in financial payment system from viewpoint of faculty members. Thus; it is necessary to revise the appropriateness of salary according to community situations concerning standards and inflation.
According to study results, quality of work life has the predictability of job satisfaction of faculty members and can be effective in improving their job satisfaction. Thus; job satisfaction can be improved through the changing and manipulating of the quality of work life components. The universities can increase the job satisfaction in faculty members through the proper program such as monetary and non-monetary rewards, creating opportunity for optimal use of faculty’s abilities and skills, payment pattern according to the teachers’ quality and quantity performance and community situations, fellowships and creating opportunities for faculty participation in decision making. Also, it is recommended that some interventions should be planned concerning the improving quality of work life and its efficiency should be evaluated.
This research has been approved and funded by vice dean Chancellor Research, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Iran coded 2530. The authors gratefully acknowledge their assistance in supporting this study. The authors would like to thank the faculty members involved in this study for their valuable contribution.
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