Old Testament Basic Bibliography

Biblical Bibliographies

Charles Conroy [www.cjconroy.net]

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Biblical Bibliographies: Index

This section of the site contains international bibliographies in selected areas of biblical studies, almost entirely related to the Old Testament / First Testament / Hebrew Bible. Titles in English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish are listed (only exceptionally in other languages).

At present the bibliographies, to a large extent, deal with the areas that I taught most often, namely, the Latter Prophets, the history of ancient Israel, and theology of the OT / Hebrew Bible. However I would hope to expand the coverage and update the bibliographies considerably in the future development of the site.

Please note that in some cases the same bibliography is listed under more than one name in the following index, to facilitate your search.

Abbreviations are used in the bibliographies for the names of most journals and series; the full titles can be found in the "list of abbreviations", to which there are links at the top and the end of every page of bibliography.

Bibliographies put online for the first time in the preceding twelve months are signalled as such below. Ongoing revisions of existing bibliographies, however, are not noted on this index page but only by a timestamp within the bibliography page in question.

The following alphabetical table should make it easier to locate a specific bibliography:

A   |   B   |   C   |   D   |   E   |   F   |   G   |   H   |   I   |   J   |   K   |   L   |   M   |   N   |   O   |   P   |   Q   |   R   |   S   |   T   |   U   |   V   |   W   |   X   |   Y   |   Z

You might also like to visit the "Useful Links" page, where (among other topics) you can find references to various sites that offer free access to scholarly bibliographical resources.


Amarna Letters

Amos: commentaries

Amos: general bibliography

Amos – texts: 7–9: the visions of Amos

Amos – texts: 7,10-17

Ancient Near East: introductory bibliography

Apocalyptic literature in the OT and Early Judaism

Archaeology: introductory bibliography for Israel/Palestine and neighbouring areas

Archaeology: Jerusalem prior to its fall to the Babylonians

Archaeology: "Low Chronology" for Iron I-IIA

Asherah, with particular reference to the inscriptions of Kuntillet ‘Ajrud and Kh. el-Qôm


Biblical Theology: Dictionaries and Encyclopedias

Biblical Theology: Jewish Biblical Theology

Biblical Theology: New Testament Theologies

Biblical Theology: Old Testament Theologies from the 19th cent. and early 20th cent.

Biblical Theology: Old Testament Theologies from 1920 onwards

Biblical Theology: Theologies of the whole Christian Bible (OT + NT)

Biblical Theology – origins: Gabler and his predecessors

Biblical Theology – origins: Gabler's Discourse (1787), with some downloadable texts


Call narratives in the Old Testament

Chronology: "Low Chronology" for Iron I-IIA

Chronology: regnal dates of the kings of Judah and Israel

Commentaries (Jewish and Christian) on the whole Jewish Bible / Old Testament (pre-1800)

Covenant in the OT with its ancient Near Eastern background

Cultic prostitution (so-called) in ancient Israel


Daniel: commentaries

Daniel: general bibliography

Daniel – texts: 12,1-4 in the context of chaps 10–12

Daniel – themes: resurrection

Divination in the Ancient Near East


Egypt and Canaan in the New Kingdom Period (LB and Early Iron)

Elijah and Elisha: general bibliography

Exegetical methodology

Ezekiel: commentaries (post-1800)

Ezekiel: general bibliography

Ezekiel: reception and interpretation pre-1800, A: Jewish sources

Ezekiel: reception and interpretation pre-1800, B: Christian sources

Ezekiel: text transmission and text criticism

Ezekiel – texts: 1,1–3,15

Ezekiel – texts: 8–11

Ezekiel – texts: 37,1-14

Ezekiel – texts: 40–48 (as a whole)

Ezekiel – texts: 40–48 (individual chapters)

Ezekiel – themes: the Glory of the Lord


Folklore studies in the context of oral literature in ancient Israel and the ancient Near East

Form Criticism and OT studies in general


Gabler and the origins of biblical theology

Gabler's Discourse (1787): with some downloadable texts

Geography of Israel / Palestine


Habiru, Shasu, and similar groups

Histories of Israel: selected global presentations (from 1950 onwards)

History of Israel: the Hellenistic period (second part of post-exilic period)

History of Israel: the Neo-Babylonian (exilic) period

History of Israel: the Persian period (first part of post-exilic period)

History of Israel: the Syro-Ephraimite war

History of Old Testament Literature

Hosea: commentaries

Hosea: general bibliography

Hosea – texts: 5,8–6,6

Hosea – texts: 11,1-11

Hosea – themes: popular religion according to the book of Hosea


Introductions to the Old Testament

Isaiah 1–66: commentaries on the whole book and on its various parts

Isaiah 1–66: general bibliography and studies on the composition of Isa 1-66 as a whole

Isaiah 1–66: text transmission and text criticism

Isaiah 1–39: general bibliography

Isaiah 40–55: general bibliography

Isaiah 56–66: general bibliography

Isaiah – texts: 5,1-7

Isaiah – texts: 6,1–8,18(9,6): the "Denkschrift" (memoir) hypothesis

Isaiah – texts: 6,1-13

Isaiah – texts: 7,1-25

Isaiah – texts: 42,1-9

Isaiah – texts: 49,1-13

Isaiah – texts: 50,4-11

Isaiah – texts: 52,13–53,12

Isaiah – themes: "servant of the Lord" (general bibliography)

Isaiah – themes: "servant of the Lord" (studies on Isa 42,1-9 and its immediate context)

Isaiah – themes: "servant of the Lord" (studies on Isa 49,1-13)

Isaiah – themes: "servant of the Lord" (studies on Isa 50,4-11)

Isaiah – themes: "servant of the Lord" (studies on Isa 52,13–53,12)

Isaiah – themes: social critique


Jeremiah: commentaries

Jeremiah: general bibliography

Jeremiah – texts: 1,4-19

Jeremiah – texts: 15,10-21

Jeremiah – texts: 28 and related texts in chaps 26–29

Jeremiah – texts: 31,31-34 in the context of chaps 30–31

Jeremiah – themes: prophetic conflict (false prophecy)

Jeremiah – themes: the confessions of Jeremiah

Jeremiah – themes: the new covenant

Jerusalem: archaeological and historical questions (up to 587/86 bce)

Joshua: commentaries

Joshua: general bibliography

Joshua: text transmission and text criticism


Kuntillet ‘Ajrud and Kh. el-Qôm, inscriptions


Literacy, writing, and the making of books/scrolls in ancient Israel


Merneptah's (Merenptah's) Stele

Methodology and theory of exegesis

Monotheism in ancient Israel, with reference to its ancient Near Eastern context


New Testament Theologies

Nomads in the ancient Near East


Old Testament Introductions

Old Testament Literary History

Old Testament Theologies: 19th cent. and early 20th cent.

Old Testament Theologies: from 1920 onwards

Old Testament Theology: debate about its feasibility and its relation to a History of Israelite Religion

Old Testament Theology: debate about the question of a "centre" of the Old Testament

Old Testament Theology: surveys of research and methodological discussions

Old Testament Theology – contributions: P. Beauchamp, J. Schreiner, M. Nobile

Old Testament Theology – contributions: W. Brueggemann

Old Testament Theology – contributions: B. S. Childs

Old Testament Theology – contributions: W. Eichrodt

Old Testament Theology – contributions: G. Fohrer, C. Westermann, W. Zimmerli

Old Testament Theology – contributions: G. von Rad

Old Testament Theology – contributions: R. Rendtorff

Old Testament Theology – contributions: various Catholic scholars from 1940 onwards

Old Testament Theology – contributions: various Theologies published between 1991 and 2004

Orality, oral literature, and folklore studies


Philistine cities (1): Ashdod and Ashkelon

Philistine cities (2): Ekron

Philistine cities (3): Gath and Gaza

Philistines and other Sea Peoples: basic general bibliography

Philistines and other Sea Peoples: further archaeological titles

Philistines and other Sea Peoples: settlements outside the Philistine Pentapolis

Pontifical Biblical Commission: two significant documents (1993 and 2001)

Prophets: ancient Near East

Prophets: anthropological and sociological aspects

Prophets: book of the Twelve Prophets as a whole

Prophets: canon formation and the prophetic books

Prophets: Elijah and Elisha

Prophets: form criticism

Prophets: general introductions

Prophets: general studies

Prophets: history of research and current tendencies

Prophets: pre-classical prophecy in Israel

Prophets: prophetic books (in general) – final form and process of formation

Prophets: psychological aspects ("ecstatic" prophecy and related topics)

Prophets: reception in Judaism (pre-1000 C.E) and in the Qur’ān

Prophets: sociological aspects

Prophets: terminology used in the Bible

Prophets – themes: call narratives

Prophets – themes: prophetic conflict (false prophecy)

Prophets – themes: social critique


"Remnant" as a theme in the OT

Resurrection and related themes in the OT and Early Judaism


Sacred prostitution (so-called) in ancient Israel

Scribal culture, schools, and the formation of scriptural literature in Israel


Textual criticism of the OT books: an introductory bibliography

Twelve Prophets, Book of: general studies

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Annotated Old Testament Bibliography

M. Daniel Carroll R. and Richard S. HessFor the most part, this list considers English language studies and exegetical commentaries that have appeared within the last quarter of a century. However, there is much of value that predates this period. For one of the most useful and wide ranging bibliographies of earlier works, see:Childs, Brevard S. Old Testament Books for Pastors and Teachers. Westminster, 1977.Our hope is that the following list will continue to prove useful by regular updating. An older form of this annotated bibliography can be found in R. S. Hess and G. J. Wenham, eds., Make the Old Testament Live: From Curriculum to Classroom. Eerdmans, 1998, pp. 191-218. The volume itself is a unique collection of essays on teaching the Old Testament from a variety of perspectives. A special note of appreciation is due to Robert Hubbard and the late Robert Alden, whose earlier bibliography formed the basis for what follows.The following categories are found below:Introductions
Histories of Israel
Translations of Collections of Ancient Near Eastern Texts
Ancient Near Eastern Histories
Hebrew Lexicons
Biblical-Theological Dictionaries
Hebrew Grammars
Old Testament Canon/Textual Criticism
Sociological and Anthropological Studies
Feminist, Minority, and Third World Studies
Literary Approaches
Israelite Religion
Commentaries by Bible book (following the order of the Protestant canon)| Abbreviations: |

AB Anchor Bible
AOTC Apollos Old Testament Commentary
BST The Bible Speaks Today
CBC Cambridge Bible Commentary
ComC Communicator's Commentary
ConC Continental Commentary
DSB Daily Study Bible
FOTL Forms of Old Testament Literature
HCOT Historical Critical Commentary of the Old Testament
Herm Hermeneia
ICC The International Critical Commentary
Int Interpretation
JPS Jewish Publication Society Torah Commentary; and Jewish Publication Society Commentary
NAC New American Commentary
NCB New Century Bible
NIBC New International Biblical Commentary
NICOT New International Commentary on the Old Testament
NIVAC The NIV Application Commentary
OBT Overtures to Biblical Theology
OTL The Old Testament Library
SBTS Sources for Biblical and Theological Study
TBC Torch Bible Commentary
TOTC Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries
WBC Word Biblical Commentary
WeBC Westminster Bible Companion
WEC Wycliffe Exegetical Commentary

*Exemplary in its category


Archer, Jr., Gleason A Survey of Old Testament Introduction. Revised edition. Moody, 1994. A conservative, occasionally polemical, always detailed and informative introduction.

*Arnold, Bill T. and Bryan E. Beyer. Encountering the Old Testament: A Christian Survey. Baker, 1999. Evangelical undergraduate survey with excellent photos, maps, charts, sidebars, and a CD with lots more photos. Helpful outlines of books and reviews of the most important ideas and term.

Baker, David W. and Bill T. Arnold eds., The Face of Old Testament Studies: A Survey of Contemporary Approaches. Baker, 1999. The most important work surveying the academic field of Old Testament studies, written and edited by Evangelicals.

*Broyles, Craig C. ed. Interpreting the Old Testament. A Guide for Exegesis. Baker, 2001. Evangelical scholars discuss methods of Old Testament exegesis and criticism for interpreting the text.

Childs, B.S. Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture. Fortress, 1979. A canonical approach to the text and books.

Dillard, Raymond and Tremper Longman III. An Introduction to the Old Testament. Zondervan, 1994. A helpful up-to-date Evangelical contribution. Longman finished the project after the death of Dillard.

Eissfeldt, O. The Old Testament: An Introduction. trans. P.R. Ackroyd. Harper and Row, 1965. The classic liberal Protestant introduction.

Harrison, R. K. An Old Testament Introduction. Eerdmans, 1979. Comprehensive Evangelical discussion of introductory issues for its time.

*LaSor, W.S., D.A. Hubbard, and F.W. Bush. Old Testament Survey. Eerdmans, 1982. Second edition, 1996. A reasonably up-to-date introduction from a balanced Evangelical perspective.

Soggin, J. Alberto. Introduction to the Old Testament. OTL. Westminster, 1989. The current standard in place of Eissfeldt; weak on literary approaches.


Forms of Old Testament Literature. Eerdmans. Analyses of books of the Old Testament in terms of their structure and the forms of literature found in them.

Guides to Biblical Scholarship: Old Testament Series. Fortress. The best set of paperback surveys of methods of Biblical interpretation.

Moody Press: Four volumes by H. Wolf (Pentateuch), D. Howard (Historical Books), and C. H. Bullock (Poetic Books and Prophetic Books).

Old Testament Guides. Sheffield Academic Press. These are the most useful for current discussions of the major interpretive issues and approaches on each book of the Old Testament.

The Oxford Bible. Oxford University. These volumes deal with collections of books (e.g., the prophets by J. F. A. Sawyer) and genres (e.g., poetry by S. E. Gillingham).

Sources for Biblical and Theological Study. Eisenbrauns. Collections of the most important articles in the particular field, whether specific biblical texts (e.g., R. Hess and D. Tsumura on Genesis 1-11) or on methods (e.g., C. E. Carter and C. L. Meyers on social sciences approaches).


Anderson, Bernard W. Contours of Old Testament Theology. Fortress, 1999. Themes of the holiness of God, covenants, torah/wisdom, and prophecy/apocalyptic are interwoven in this synthesis by an influential scholar.

*Barr, James. The Concept of Biblical Theology: An Old Testament Perspective. SCM, 1999. The most important survey of Old Testament theologies at the end of the twentieth century, if not always one that everyone will agree with.

Brueggemann, Walter. Theology of the Old Testament: Testimony, Dispute, Advocacy. Fortress, 1997. A provocative approach that structures the discussion around the metaphor and imagery of the courtroom.

Childs, Brevard S. Old Testament Theology in a Canonical Context. Fortress, 1986. Classic on canon with a sensitivity to the New Testament.

*Eichrodt, W. Old Testament Theology. 2 vols. OTL. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1961-67. Emphasis on the covenant. Along with von Rad, the giant in the field in the twentieth century.

Goldingay, John. Old Testament Theology. Volume One. Israel's Gospel. InterVarsity Press, 2003. Evangelical and readable survey of the theological message of the narrative books of the Old Testament.

Hasel, Gerhard Old Testament Theology: Basic Issues in the Current Debate. Eerdmans, 1995. Fourth edition. Detailed survey of authors and issues.

House, Paul R. Old Testament Theology. IVP, 1998. A work that outlines God's nature and acts in each book of the Old Testament. A narrative approach designed for college and seminary students.

Kaiser, W.C., Jr. Toward an Old Testament Theology. Zondervan, 1978. Evangelical. Emphasis on promise themes.

Martens, Elmer A. ed. Old Testament Theology. Bibliographies No. 13. Baker, 1997. A helpful survey of more than five hundred of the most important works, listed by subject.

Ollenburger, Ben C., Elmer A. Marten, and Gerhard F. Hasel, eds. The Flowering of Old Testament Theology. Sources for Biblical and Theological Study. Eisenbrauns, 1992. A collection of classic articles.

Preuss, H. D. Old Testament Theology. 2 vols. OTL. Westminster/John Knox, 1995-6. Focus on Yahweh.

Sailhammer, John H. Introduction to Old Testament Theology: A Canonical Approach. Zondervan, 1995. Evangelical. Structured study on how to do Old Testament theology.

Smith, Ralph L. Old Testament Theology: Its History, Method, and Message. Broadman & Holman, 1993. Evangelical. A helpful source for summaries of debates and positions on a wide breadth of topics.

Terrien, S. The Elusive Presence: Toward a New Biblical Theology. Harper and Row, 1978. Focus on the wisdom literature.

Von Rad, G. Old Testament Theology. 2 vols. Harper and Row, 1962-65. Salvation history approach that tries to explain how Israelites did theology. Along with Eichrodt, the giant in the field in the twentieth century.

Zimmerli, Walther. Old Testament Theology in Outline. John Knox, 1978. Concise discussions with bibliographies by a capable critical scholar of an earlier generation. Yaheh is the central theme.

Zuck, Roy B., ed. A Biblical Theology of the Old Testament. Moody, 1991. Evangelical. Dallas seminary faculty contribute their perspectives on each major section of the Old Testament.

Special Studies

Hess, R. S., and G. Wenham, eds. Zion, City of Our God. Eerdmans, 1999. History, religion, and theology of Jerusalem as revealed in the variety of Old Testament literature.

Hess, R. S., and M. Daniel Carroll R., eds. Israel's Messiah in the Bible and the Dead Sea Scrolls. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2003. Current understanding of the role of the Messiah in the Bible and its context.

*Hess, Richard S., and M. Daniel Carroll R., eds. Family in the Bible: Exploring Customs, Culture, and Context. Baker, 2003. Unique examination of the family in each of the major sections of the Bible.

Satterthwaite, Philip E., Richard S. Hess, and Gordon J. Wenham, eds. The Lord's Anointed: Interpretation of Old Testament Messianic Texts. Baker and Paternoster, 1995. A current assessment of the exegesis of key Old Testament texts.

Histories of Israel

Ahlström, Gösta W. The History of Ancient Palestine from the Palaeolithic Period to Alexander's Conquest. With a contribution by G. O. Rollefson. Edited by D. Edelman. JSOT Supplement Series 146. Sheffield Academic Press, 1993. The most up-to-date of the major histories of ancient Israel though affected by the author's unconventional opinions and perspectives.

Bright, J. A History of Israel. 3rd ed. Westminster, 1981. Standard of the last generation, heir of the Albright school.

Dever, William G. What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It? What Archaeology Can Tell Us about the Reality of Ancient Israel. Eerdmans, 2001. Polemical but useful survey of biblical historiography and postmodern interpretations.

Hayes, J.H. and J. Maxwell Miller. A History of Ancient Israel and Judah. Westminster/John Knox, 1986. The critical alternative to Albright.

Mathews, Victor H. A Brief History of Ancient Israel. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2002. Moderately critical review of major issues regarding the study of the history of Isael.

Merrill, Eugene. Kingdom of Priests: A History of Old Testament Israel. Baker, 1987. Evangelical and conservative.

Provan, Iain, V. Philips Long, and Tremper Longman III. A Biblical History of Israel. Westminster John Knox, 2003. An Evangelical historiography.

*Shanks, Hershel, ed. Ancient Israel. From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple. Revised edition. Biblical Archaeology Society, 1999. Popular writing with each chapter written by one or two experts in the field.

Soggin, J. Alberto, A History of Ancient Israel: From Beginnings to the Bar Kochba Revolt, A.D. 135. Westminster, 1985. This is a classic liberal interpretation of Israel's history that, though now out of date, represents an important synthesis of Continental scholarship.

Special Studies in History

Dever, William G. What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It? What Archaeology Can Tell Us About the Reality of Ancient Israel. Eerdmans, 2001. A polemical but important critique of minimalism and postmodern historiography.

*Long, V. Philips. The Art of Biblical History. Foundations of Contemporary Interpretation vol. 5. Zondervan, 1994. The balance of historicity, literary art, and theology in the history writing of the Old Testament.

Long, V. Philips. Israel's Past in Present Research: Essays on Ancient Israelite Historiography. SBTS 7. Eisenbrauns, 1999. A variety of experts contribute essays on the writing and interpretation of historical data relating to the major Old Testament periods and genres.

Millard, Alan R., James K. Hoffmeier, and David W. Baker, eds. Faith, Tradition, and History: Old Testament Historiography in Its Near Eastern Context. Eisenbrauns, 1994. Important articles on the methods and interpretation of various Old Testament passages in the light of ancient Near Eastern comparisons.

Thiele, E. R. A Chronology of the Hebrew Kings. 2nd ed., Zondervan, 1983. Remains the most convincing interpretation of the chronology of the monarchy.


Aharoni, Y. The Archaeology of the Land of Israel. Trans. A.F. Rainey. Westminster, 1982. A classic work.

Ben-Tor, Amnon (ed). The Archaology of Ancient Israel. trans. R. Greenberg. Yale, 1992.

Dever, William G. Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From? Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003. Important archaeological arguments against the historicity of the biblical exodus and in favor of a largely indigenous people in Canaan who bacame Israel. Israel can be ethnically identified in the twelfth highlands of Palestine.

Hoerth, Alfred Archaeology and the Old Testament. Baker, 1998. An important evangelical guide to the subject.

*Hoffmeier, James K. and Alan Millard editors. The Future of Biblical Archaeology: Reassessing Methodologies and Assumptions. Eerdmans, 2004. Nineteen essays by specialists cover the field of biblical archaeology and bring fresh insights to interpreting the Old Testament for the 21st century.

*King, Philip J. and Lawrence E. Stager. Life in Biblical Israel. Library of Ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox, 2001. With color photos and drawings, this is the best discussion of the realia of life in biblical times.

*Kitchen, Kenneth A. On the Reliability of the Old Testament. Eerdmans, 2003. Evangelical application of archaeology and especially ancient Near Eastern texts to the Bible.

Levy, Thomas E. (ed.). The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land. Facts on File, 1995. Although it covers a larger period than that of the Biblical time, it is the first systematic presentation of social archaeology in Israel as written by leading archaeologists.

Mazar, Amihai. Archaeology of the Land of the Bible: 10,000-586 B.C.E. Doubleday, 1992. A more recent work by an experienced Israeli archaeologist.

Meyers, Eric M. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. Five vols. Oxford University, 1997.

Stern, Ephraim (ed). The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land. Simon and Schuster, 1995. Essential reference guide for sites.

Stern, Ephraim. Archaeology of the Land of the Bible. Volume II. The Assyrian, Babylonian, and Persian Periods (732-332 B.C.E.). Doubleday, 2001. The most comprehensive and up-to-date survey of the later Old Testament period.

Special Studies

In a rapidly changing field the following studies and periodicals can be useful guides:

*Chavalas, Mark W., and K. Lawson Younger, Jr., eds. Mesopotamia and the Bible. Comparative Explorations. Eerdmans, 2002. A critical assessment of major ancient archives and cultures and their impact on the Old Testament.

Dever, William G. Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They Come From? Eerdmans, 2003. Important archaeological arguments against the historicity of the biblical exodus and in favor of a largely indigenous people in Canaan who bacame Israel. Israel can be ethnically identified in the twelfth highlands of Palestine.

Watson, W. G. E., and N. Wyatt. Handbook of Ugaritic Studies. Brill, 1999. Ugarit specialists discuss the discoveries, culture, religion, and history of the city and its texts.


Near Eastern Archaeology (formerly Biblical Archaeologist)

Biblical Archaeology Review


*Aharoni, Yohanan, Michael Avi-Yonah, Anson F. Rainey, and Zeev Safrai, eds. The Carta Bible Atlas. Macmillan, 2002. New edition of a standard atlas that provides individual maps for many significant Bible events. Formerly the Macmillan Bible Atlas, this is now distributed through Eisenbrauns in the U.S.A.

Beitzel, B. The Moody Atlas of Bible Lands. Moody, 1985. Evangelical with detailed geographical discussion and good integration of maps and commentary.

Bimson, J. and J. Kane. New Bible Atlas. Tyndale, 1985. Excellent combination of price, color maps and illustrations, and archaeological commentary. Evangelical.

Brisco, Thomas V. Holman Bible Atlas. Broadman & Holman, 1998. Up-to-date images, maps, and photos with running commentary. Evangelical.

Cleave, Richard. The Holy Land: A Unique Perspective. Photography and Satellite Cartography. Lion, 1993. Stunning aerial and satellite photography.

Pritchard, J.B., ed. Harper's Atlas of the Bible. Harper and Row, 1987. Best on indices and gazetteer in relation to the maps.

Rasmussen, C.G. Zondervan NIV Atlas of the Bible. Zondervan, 1989. Stronger on photos and maps of Israel itself than of neighboring lands.

Rogerson, J. The Atlas of the Bible. Facts on File, 1985. Visually dazzling color photographs as well as discussion of geography and archaeology.

Special Studies

Useful teaching tools

Abingdon Bible Map Transparencies. Abingdon. This is a wonderful set of full color maps for both Old and New Testament events and places. One of the best for overhead projection.

Smith, George Adam. The Historical Geography of the Holy Land. 25th edition. Hodder & Stoughton, 1936; Harper & Row, 1966. This is an 1894 classic with vivid word pictures of the Holy Land.

Survey of Israel Maps. Survey of Israel, continuously updated. Hebrew and English. This is a set of scale 1:100000 maps that cover the entire area occupied by modern Israel. Includes all significant political and topographic features with many sites of antiquity noted.

Translations of Collected Ancient Near Eastern Texts

Beyerlin, W. (ed.). Near Eastern Religious Texts Relating to the Old Testament. OTL. Westminster, 1978.

*Hallo, William W. and K. Lawson Younger, Jr. (eds.). The Context of Scripture. Volume 1. Canonical Compositions from the Biblical World. Brill, 1997. Volume 2. Monumental Inscriptions from the Biblical World. Brill, 2000. Volume 3. Archival Documents from the Biblical World. Brill, 2002. This is the new Pritchard (see next entry) as a current compendium of ancient Near Eastern texts in English. There is an abundance of footnotes and cross references to biblical texts.

Nissinen, Martti, with contributions by C. L. Seow and Robert K. Ritner. Prophets and Prophecy in the Ancient Near East. Society of Biblical Literature Writing from the Ancient World. Society of Biblical Literature, 2003. A compendium of prophecy texts from the ancient Near East.

Pritchard, J.B. (ed.). Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament. 3rd. ed. Princeton University Press, 1969. Two volumes of a paperback epitome of this larger volume have also appeared.

Wyatt, N. Religious Texts from Ugarit: The Words of Ilimilku and His Colleagues. Sheffield, 1998. Contemporary translation of religious texts that provide the essential background for understanding "Canaanite" religion.

Ancient Near Eastern Histories

Briant, Pierre. From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2002. At more than 1,000 pages this corrected English translation represents the best synthesis on the Persian Empire.

Chavalas, Mark W., and K. Lawson Younger, Jr., eds. Mesopotamia and the Bible: Comparative Explorations. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2002. A collection of approaches to different archives of Syrian and Mesopotamian texst and their relation to the Bible.

Gurney, O. R. The Hittites. Revised edition. Penguin, 1990. A classic of a culture with important relevance to the Bible.

Hallo, W.W., and W.K. Simpson. The Ancient Near East: A History. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971. One of the most widely used brief histories.

Hoerth, Alfred, Gerald Mattingly, and Edwin Yamauchi (eds.). Peoples of the Old Testament World. Baker, 1994. Updating of Wiseman's Peoples of Old Testament Times by U.S. Evangelicals.

*Kemp, Barry J. Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization. 2nd edition. Routledge, 1991. A social study of Egyptian life and culture.

Oppenheim, A. Leon. Ancient Mesopotamia. University of Chicago, 1977.

Von Soden, Wolfram. The Ancient Orient: An Introduction to the Study of the Ancient Near East. Translated by D.G. Schley. Eerdmans, 1993. Traditional approach to ancient Near Eastern history.

Wiseman, D.J. (ed.). Peoples of Old Testament Times. Oxford, 1973. Contributions by outstanding (mostly British) scholars in their areas.

Hebrew Lexicons

Brown, F., S.R. Driver, and C.A. Briggs. Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament. Hendrickson, 1979. The best of the older lexicons.

Clines, David J. A. (ed.). The Dictionary of Classical Hebrew. 8 vols. Sheffield Academic Press, 1993-. Five volumes have appeared. Designed for a contextual and usage approach to understanding the meaning of words.

Holladay, W.L. A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. Eerdmans, 1971. Useful, quick reference.

*Koehler, L., and W. Baumgartner et al. (eds.). The Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament. 3rd ed. 5 vols. Brill, 1994-2001; Study edition, 2 vols. Brill, 2001. A translation of the most complete Hebrew and Aramaic German lexicon. New and less expensive versions of this lexicon are being produced.

Biblical-Theological Dictionaries

*Botterweck, G. J., H. Ringgren, H.-J. Fabry (eds.). Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. Eerdmans, 1977-. Fourteen volumes have appeared in English translation. The standard work.

Harris, R.L., G.L. Archer, Jr., and B.K. Waltke (eds.). Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. 2 vols. Moody, 1980. Brief discussions from an Evangelical perspective.

Jenni, E. and C. Westermann (eds.). Theological Lexicon of the Old Testament. 3 vols. Hendrickson, 1997.

VanGemeren, Willem A. (ed.). New International Dictionary of Old Testament Theology and Exegesis. 5 vols. Zondervan, 1997. The most recent and complete Evangelical contribution.


*Accordance on CD-ROM. Gramcord. The most comprehensive computer concordance for Masoretic Text, Septuagint, and English versions. Available for Macintosh computers only. visit the Gramcord site.

*Even-Shoshan, E. A New Concordance of the Old Testament Using the Hebrew and Aramaic Text. 2nd edition. Baker, 1989. The best concordance for the Hebrew text of the Old Testament.

Goodrick, E.W., and J.R. Kohlenberger, III. The NIV Exhaustive Concordance. Zondervan, 1990.

Hebrew Grammars

Chisholm, Jr., Robert B. From Exegesis to Exposition: A Practical Guide to Using Biblical Hebrew. Baker, 1998. Evangelical guidance for translating Hebrew data from the Bible to a meaningful sermon.

Cowley, A.E., and E. Kautzsch (eds.). Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar. 2d Eng. edition. Oxford, 1910. Traditionally the best of the reference grammars.

Kelley, P. Biblical Hebrew: An Introductory Grammar. Eerdmans, 1992. Continues and updates the Weingreen approach to learning Hebrew.

Ross, Allen P. Introducing Biblical Hebrew. Baker, 2001. A thorough introductory grammar.

Seow, C. L. A Grammar for Biblical Hebrew. Revised edition. Abingdon, 1995. Continues and updates the Lambdin approach to learning Hebrew.

Stuart, Douglas. Old Testament Exegesis. A Handbook for Students and Pastors. 3rd edition. Westminster John Knox, 2001 Important principles and a guide to other studies for interpreting the Hebrew text and applying it to sermons.

*Van Der Merwe, Christo H. J., Jackie A. Naudé, and Jan H. Kroeze. A Biblical Hebrew Reference Grammar. Sheffield, 1999. An affordable, indexed study incorporating recent insights of linguistics.

Waltke, B.K., and M. O'Connor. An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax. Eisenbrauns, 1990. An integration of modern linguistic approaches.

Old Testament Canon/Textual Criticism

Barton, John. Holy Writings, Sacred Text. The Canon in Early Christianity. Westminster John Knox, 1997. An important historical survey of the idea and definition of the biblical canon.

Beckwith, R., The Old Testament Canon of the New Testament Church. Eerdmans, 1985. An affirmation of the Old Testament canon.

Brotzman, E. Old Testament Textual Textual Criticism: A Practical Introduction. Baker, 1994. Good Evangelical introduction for the beginner. Special guides for using Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia.

Jobes, Karen H. and MoisÈs Silva, Invitation to the Septuagint. Baker, 2000. A reliable and readable introduction to the Greek translation of the Old Testament.

Tov, Emmanuel. The Text-Critical Use of the Septuagint in Biblical Research. Revised edition. Jerusalem Biblical Studies volume 8. Simor, 1997. The most important introduction to the study of the Septuagint for biblical scholars.

*Tov Emmanuel. Textual Criticism of the Hebrew Bible. 2nd edition. Fortress, 2001. The best introduction to the subject. The best introduction to the subject.

Würthwein, Ernst. The Text of the Old Testament. 2nd edition. Eerdmans, 1995. Classic discussion of the Hebrew texts and the versions.

Sociological and Anthropological Studies

Carroll R., M. Daniel (ed.). Rethinking Contexts, Rereading Texts: Contributions from the Social Sciences to Biblical Interpretation. JSOTSup 299. Sheffield Academic Press, 2000. Collection of essays on OT and NT sociological approaches, highlighting method with a variety of applications to specific texts.

Carter, Charles E. and Carol L. Meyers, eds. Community, Identity, and Ideology: Social Science Approaches to the Hebrew Bible. SBTS vol. 6. Eisenbrauns, 1996. A collection of important essays dealing with method and case studies from ancient Israel's society and history.

Chalcraft, David J., ed. Social-Scientific Old Testament Criticism: A Sheffield Reader. Sheffield, 1997. A colllection of studies on the subject that have been published in the Journal for the Study of the Old Testament.

*Clements, Ronald E. ed. The World of Ancient Israel: Sociological, Anthropological and Political Perspectives. Cambridge, 1989. A key introduction to these categories by a collection of mainly British writers.

Matthews, Victor H. and Don C. Benjamin. Social World of Ancient Israel 1250-587 BCE. Hendrickson, 1993. Application of anthropology to social roles and institutions within ancient Israel. Can be a bit fanciful at times.

*Overholt, Thomas W. Cultural Anthropology and the Old Testament. Guides to Biblical Scholarship. Fortress, 1996. An excellent introduction to the use of anthropology in the study of the prophets. Good bibliography.

Perdue, Leo G., et al. Families in Ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox, 1997. One of the few studies on this subject, a very useful source of reliable information.

Pleins, David J. The Social Visions of the Hebrew Bible: A Theological Introduction. Westminster John Knox, 2001. Argues for a variety of ethical perspectives from different socio-historical settings within the Old Testament.

Rogerson, John W. Anthropolgy and the Old Testament. The Biblical Seminar. JSOT Press, 1984. Documents the misapplication of anthropology in Old Testament studies.

Feminist, Minority, and Third World Studies

*Bird, Phyllis A. Missing Persons and Mistaken Identities: Women and Gender in Ancient Israel. OBT. Fortress, 1997. A collection of significant essays written over the last twenty years by an important Old Testament feminist scholar.

Boff, Clodovis and George V. Pixley. The Bible, the Church, and the Poor. Orbis, 1989. Presents a biblical basis from a liberationist commitment for a theology of the poor and pastoral work among the disdvantaged.

Brenner, Athalya, and Carole Fontaine, eds. A Feminist Companion to Reading the Bible: Approaches, Methods and Strategies. Sheffield, 1997. A wide variety of essays by women and men on methods for reading, examples of interpretation, and interaction with a wide variety of religious and cultural influences on the formation and religious use of the Hebrew Bible.

Croatto, J. Severino. Exodus: A Hermeneutics of Freedom. Orbis, 1981. Utilizes modern philosophical hermeneutical theory for contextualizing the Exodus and the prophets to modern Latin America.

Felder, Cain Hope. Troubling Biblical Waters: Race, Class, and Family. Orbis, 1989. Designed to surface the existence of Blacks in the Bible and to explore how to find the significance of the Bible for contemporary social issues.

Felder, Cain Hope (ed). Stony the Road We Trod: African American Biblical Interpretation. Fortress, 1991. Essays that try to bring an African American perspective to the analysis and application of the Bible.

Levison, John R., and Priscilla Pope-Levison, eds. Return to Babel: Global Perspectives on the Bible. Westminster John Knox, 1999. Fifteen contributors from Africa, Asia, and Latin America examine five passages from the Old Testament and five from the New from a liberation perspective.

Newsom, Carol A. and Sharon H. Ringe (eds). The Women's Bible Commentary. Revised edition. Westminster John Knox, 1998. A one volume feminist commentary on the entire Bible. Each entry has a bibliography for further reading.

Pixley, Jorge. Biblical Israel: A People's History. Fortress, 1992. The application of a sociological approach in order to present the history of Israel as one of peasants' struggles against oppressors.

Prior, Michael. The Bible and Colonialism: A Moral Critique. Biblical Seminar 48. Sheffield Academic Press, 1997. Discusses how the promise of the land and the Conquest accounts impacted native communities in Latin America, South Africa, and Palestine.

*Sugirtharajah, R. S. (ed). Voices from the Margin: Interpreting the Bible in the Third World. Second edition. Orbis/SPCK, 1995. A collection of essays from around the world that interpret particular biblical texts from a liberationist and pluralist perspective.

Trible, Phyllis. Texts of Terror: Literary-Feminist Readings of Biblical Narratives. OBT. Fortress, 1984. A classical work, which combines literary and feminist criticism, to highlight the tragedy and violence in the stories of four women in the Old Testament.

Vaage, Leif E., ed. Subversive Scriptures: Revolutionary Readings of the Christian Bible in Latin America. Trinity Press International, 1997. A translation of articles from a Latin American liberationist biblical studies journal.

*West, Gerald O. and Musa W. Dube (eds.). The Bible in Africa: Transactions, Trajectories and Trends. Brill, 2001. Collection of essays on method and readings of particular texts from across the African continent.

*Wimbush, Vincent L. (ed.). African Americans and the Bible: Sacred Texts and Social Textures. Continuum, 2001. Essays dealing more with historical and contemporary approaches to handling the OT and NT than readings of specific texts.

Literary Approaches

*Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Narrative. Basic Books, 1981. Still one of the best introductory guides for the beginner in interpreting narrative.

Alter, Robert. The Art of Biblical Poetry. Basic Books, 1985. An excellent introduction to biblical poetry, especially the dynamics of parallelism.

Alter, Robert. The World of Biblical Literature. Basic Books, 1992. A useful supplement to Alter's earlier work.

Alter, Robert and Frank Kermode (eds.) The Literary Guide to the Bible. Harvard University Press, 1987. An application of the literary method to each book of the Bible.

Amit, Yairah. Reading Biblical Narratives: Literary Criticism and the Hebrew Bible. Fortress, 2001. An up-to-date introduction to the various components of a literary reading, written by an Israeli scholar.

Bar-Efrat, Shimon. Narrative Art in the Bible. Bible and Literature Series 17. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1989. An important contribution to techniques of literary interpretation.

Berlin, Adele. Poetics and Interpretation of Biblical Narrative. Almond, 1983. A very helpful introduction to the various elements of a literary approach.

Fisch, Harold. Poetry with a Purpose: Biblical Poetics and Interpretation. Indiana University Press, 1988.A collection of careful and creative readings of different parts of the Old Testament.

*Fokkelman, J.P. Reading Biblical Narrative: An Introductory Guide. Westminster John Knox, 1999. An excellent introduction to different aspects of a literary approach by a seasoned practioner.

*Fokkelman, J. P. Reading Biblical Poetry. An Introductory Guide. Westminster John Knox, 2001. Lays out the basic principles for understanding and interpreting Hebrew poetic texts.

Gunn, David M. and Danna Nolan Fewell. Narrative in the Hebrew Bible. The Oxford Bible Series. Oxford University Press, 1993. A counterpoint to Sternberg.

Polzin, Robert. Moses and the Deuteronomist: A Literary Study of the Deuteronomic History. Seabury, 1980. One of the earliest and best discussions of narrative analysis in the historical books.

Ryken, Leland and Tremper Longman III (eds.). A Complete Literary Guide to the Bible. Zondervan, 1993. An Evangelical counterpart to Alter and Kermode.

*Sternberg, Moshe. The Poetics of Biblical Narrative: Ideological Literature and the Drama of Reading. Indiana Unviersity Press, 1985. Probably the most important and thorough guide to philosophy and technique of narrative writing in the Old Testament.

Israelite Religion

Albertz, Rainer. A History of Israelite Religion in the Old Testament Period. 2 vols. Old Testament Library. Westminster John Knox, 1994. This detailed study uses a classic liberal reconstruction of the history of Old Testament literature with interaction with recent discussions and discoveries.

De Moor, Johannes C. The Rise of Yahwism. The Roots of Israelite Monotheism. BETL 91. Peeters, 1990. Important evidence and arguments for Israel's worship of one God in Mosaic and later times.

Grabbe, Lester L. Priests, Prophets, Diviners, Sages: A Socio-Historical Study of Religious Specialists in Ancient Israel. Trinity Press International, 1995. Sometimes assumes too much, but overall a useful study of these professional groups and their activities in Israel and surrounding cultures.

Johnston, Philip S. Shades of Sheol. Death and Afterlife in the Old Testament. Leicester: Apollos; Downers Grove: IVP, 2002. Evangelical evaluation of the afterlife in the Old Testament that argues a distinction between righteous believers and the unrighteous.

Keel, Othmar and Christoph Uelinger. Gods, Goddesses, and Images of God in Ancient Israel. Translated by Allan W. Mahnke. Fortress, 1998. The most important survey of the archaeological data, and especially the iconography, related to Israelite religion.

Mettinger, Tryggve N. D. No Graven Image? Israelite Aniconism in Its Ancient Near Eastern Context. Coniectanea Biblica Old Testament Series 42. Almqvist & Wiksell, 1995. A combination of archaeological, textual, and biblical evidence to consider the practice of Israel's worship of God without images.

Miller, Patrick D. The Religion of Ancient Israel. Westminster John Knox, 2000. A study of many important topics of Canaanite and Israelite religion.

Shanks, Hershel, and Jack Meinhardt, eds. Aspects of Monotheism: How God Is One. Biblical Archaeology Society, 1997. Summarizes relevant archaeological finds and the prevailing critical view in America of the evolution of Isrealite religion.

Smith, Mark S. The Early History of God: Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel. Harper & Row, 1990. Second revised edition, 2003. A detailed synthesis of archaeological, textual, and biblical evidence for the worship of Yahweh and other deities in Old Testament times. This approach argues for a convergence of various deities to "create" Israel's God as he is known in the Bible.

Tigay, Jeffrey H. You Shall Have No Other Gods: Israelite Religion in the Light of Hebrew Inscriptions. Harvard Semitic Studies 31. Scholars Press, 1987. A brief but thorough survey of written evidence, especially personal names, this study argues that monotheism was present during the Israelite monarchy as the official religion of the southern and perhaps northern kingdoms.

van der Toorn, Karel. Family Religion in Babylonia, Syria and Israel: Continuity and Change in the Forms of Religious Life. Studies in the History and Culture of the Ancient Near East volume 7. Brill, 1996. Studies ancestor worship and Israelite monotheism from the beginnings and through the Monarchy.

van der Toorn, Karel, Bob Becking, and Pieter W. van der Horst eds. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Brill, 1995. Second edition, 1998. This is an essential reference work on the subject.

*Zevit, Ziony. The Religions of Ancient Israel. A Synthesis of Parallactic Approaches. Continuum, 2001. The massive study of more than 800 pages provides the most thorough and balanced discussion of the subject.


Blenkinsopp, Joseph. The Pentateuch. An Introduction to the First Five Books of the Bible. AB. Doubleday, 1992.


Brueggemann, W. Genesis. Int. Westminster John Knox, 1982. Theological reading with application.

Cassuto, U. Commentary on Genesis. Trans. I. Abrahams. 2 vols. Magnes, 1964. Jewish scholar situates Genesis in Rabbinic and Hebrew interpretative traditions. A classic alternative to the Documentary approach. Only includes chapters 1-11.

Hamilton, Victor. The Book of Genesis: Chapters 1-17. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1990. The Book of Genesis: Chapters 18-50. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1995. Emphasis on comparative Semitics. Evangelical.

Kidner, D. Genesis: An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1967. An elegant interpretation of the book. Evangelical.

Mathews, Kenneth A. Genesis 1-11:26. NAC. Broadman, 1996. Most up to date.

Rad, G. von. Genesis. OTL. Westminster, 1972. A classic theological interpretation from a higher critical perspective.

Ross, Allen P. Creation and Blessing: A Guide to the Study and Exposition of Genesis. Baker, 1988. An Evangelical theological exposition with emphasis on preaching the text.

Sarna, N.M. Genesis. The Jewish Publication Society Torah Commentary. Jewish Publication Society, 1989. A recent Jewish exegesis of the Hebrew text with appreciation for traditional Rabbinic exegesis.

Waltke, Bruce K. Genesis: A Commentary. Zondervan, 2001. A competent Evangelical commentary emphasizing theological insights.

*Wenham, G.J. Genesis 1-15. WBC 1. Word, 1987. Genesis 16-50. WBC 2. Word, 1994. The best all-around Evangelical commentary that introduces the reader to the major interpretative issues and provides clearly writing on the exegesis and theological significance.

Westermann, C. Genesis. 3 vols. Augsburg, 1984-86. The largest of the resources; with an emphasis on collecting exegetical data.


Cassuto, U. Commentary on Exodus. Trans. I. Abrahams. Magnes, 1967. Important for study of the Hebrew text.

*Childs, B.S. The Book of Exodus. OTL. Westminster, 1974. The application of the canonical approach to a higher critical commentary. Includes a history of interpretation for each passage.

Durham, J.I. Exodus. WBC. Word, 1987. Follows the method of Childs.

Houtman, Cornelis. Exodus. Vol. 1 (1:1-7:13). and Exodus. Vol. 2 (7:14-19:25). HCOT. Kok Pharos, 1993 and 1996. Updating of classic historical critical approach to the book.

*Propp, William H. Exodus 1-18. AB. Doubleday, 1998. Strong on background to social institutions and customs. Important for new textual readings from the Dead Sea Scrolls.

Sarna, Nahum. Exodus. JPS Torah Commentary. Jewish Publication Society, 1991. See above for Genesis.


Gerstenberger, Erhard S. Leviticus. OTL. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1996. Translation of a 1993 German work, this author provides theological and anthropological insights on Leviticus as a postexilic work.

Harrrison, R.K. Leviticus: An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1980. Evangelical.

Hartley, J. Leviticus. WBC. Word, 1992.

Levine, B.A. Leviticus. JPS Torah Commentary. Jewish Publication Society, 1989. A specialist in Ugaritic studies looks at Leviticus.

*Milgrom, Jacob. Leviticus 1-16. AB 3. Doubleday, 1991. Leviticus 17-22. AB 3A. Doubleday, 2000. Leviticus 23-27. AB 3B. Doubleday, 2001. The fruit of a life time of study by a major biblical scholar, this work provides the most detailed and thorough exegesis available, with full reference to comparative ancient Near Eastern, Qumran, Dead Sea Scroll, and Rabbinic sources.

Rooker, Mark F. Leviticus. NAC 3A. Broadman, 2000. Evangelical survey with helpful summaries of exegetical insights and applications.

Ross, Allen P. Holiness to the LORD. A Guide to the Exposition of the Book of Leviticus. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2002. A careful Evangelical exegesis of this difficult book with much theological application.

*Wenham, G.J. The Book of Leviticus. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1979. Evangelical application of anthropology to categories of holiness. Oriented toward New Testament applications.


Ashley, T. R. The Book of Numbers. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1993. Evangelical focus on the text's final form with attentional to translational issues.

Budd, Philip J. Numbers. WBC 5. Waco, 1984. Important exegetical commentary with awareness of the critical issues.

Cole, R. Dennis. Numbers. NAC 3B. Broadman, 2000. Evangelical commentary that interacts with realia, historical issues, literary, and theological matters.

Davies, Eryl W. Numbers. NCB. Eerdmans, 1995. Focus on sources and their development to form the book.

Levine, Baruch A. Numbers 1-20. AB. Doubleday, 1993. Large commentary with ancient Near Eastern detail and philological discussion.

*Levine, Baruch A. Numbers 21-36. Anchor Bible. Doubleday, 2000. Strong on textual backgrounds to the diverse types of material.

Milgrom, J. Numbers. JPS Torah Commentary. Jewish Publication Society, 1990. Commentary on the Hebrew text which accepts a substantial historicity to the accounts.

*Wenham, G. Numbers: An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1981. Evangelical perspectives on the literary structure of the book.

Wenham, Gordon J. Numbers. Old Testament Guides. Sheffield: JSOT, 1997. This is the best available introduction to the book of Numbers.


Christensen, Duane L. Deuteronomy 1-11. WBC. Word, 1991. Evangelical who studies the structure of the book as a poem with five concentric units.

*Craigie, P.C. The Book of Deuteronomy. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1976. Evangelical, clearly written study using Ugaritic and other ancient Near Eastern evidence.

McConville, J. Gordon. Deuteronomy. AOTC 5. Leicester: Apollos; Downers Grove: IVP, 2002. An Evangelical commentary emphasizing the theology of the book.

Miller, P.D., Jr. Deuteronomy. Inter. John Knox, 1990. Important theological application of the book.

Nelson, Richard D. Deuteronomy. A Commentary. OTL. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2002. A critical commentary with important exegesis of the text.

Rad, G. von. Deuteronomy. OTL. Westminster, 1966. Theological.

Thompson, J.A. Deuteronomy: An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1974. Helpful on Ancient Near Eastern backgrounds. Evangelical.

Tigay, J. H. Deuteronomy. JPS Torah Commentary. Jewish Publication Society, 1996. A committed source critic studies the book within a Jewish context.

Weinfeld, M. Deuteronomy 1-11. Doubleday, 1991. An authority on Deuteronomic studies comments on the text.

*Wright, Christopher J. H. Deuteronomy. New International Biblical Commentary. Hendrickson, 1996. A leading Old Testament ethicist presents an Evangelical interpretation of the text.


Boling, R. and G. E. Wright Joshua. A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. AB. Doubleday, 1982. Aware of the archaeology, although dated.

Butler, T. Joshua. WBC. Word, 1983. Emphasis on literary critical aspects of the text as a Deuteronomistic work.

*Hess, R. S. Joshua: An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1996. Integrates recent archaeological discoveries and literary analysis. Evangelical.

Howard, David M., Jr. Joshua. NAC 5. Broadman, 1998. Evangelical, appreciative of the history, with useful word studies.

Nelson, Richard D. Joshua. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 1997. Joshua as the product of Deuteronomistic redaction.

Woudstra, M. The Book of Joshua. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1981. Evangelical, regards the narrative as historical.


Auld, A.G. Joshua, Judges, and Ruth. DSB Westminster, 1984. A useful brief commentary.

*Block, Daniel I. Judges, Ruth. NAC 6. Broadman, 1999. Evangelical, thorough, and detailed exegesis.

Boling, R. Judges. AB. Doubleday, 1975. Emphasizes the traditions behind the text and places many of them in the pre-Monarchy period.

Lindars, Barnabas. Judges 1-5. T & T Clark, 1995. The beginnings of a new ICC stopped by the author's untimely death, this work surveys a breadth of modern scholarship and closely studies the text criticism of the book.

Schneider, Tammi J. Judges. Berit Olam: Studies in Hebrew Narrative & Poetry. Michael Glazier, 2000. Important contribution providing a literary synthesis of the whole book.

Soggin, J.A. Judges. OTL. Westminster, 1981. A classic liberal exegesis by someone who controls much of European scholarship.

Younger, K. Lawson, Jr. Judges/Ruth. NIVAC. Evangelical and sensitive to literary forms and rhetoric.


Block, Daniel I. See under Judges.

Bush, Frederic. Ruth, Esther. WBC. Word, 1996. An Evangelical scholar of the Bible and Ancient Near East brings his knowledge to these two books.

Campbell, E.F., Jr. Ruth. AB. Doubleday, 1985. An important theological and archaeological discussion of the book.

Gow, Murray D. The Book of Ruth: Its Structure, Theme, and Purpose. Apollos, 1992. Evangelical application of rhetorical and literary techniques to argue for a coherent structure to Ruth.

*Hubbard, Robert L., Jr. The Book of Ruth. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1988. A balanced and thorough study with an appreciation of literary criticism from an Evangelical perspective.

Nielsen, Kirsten. Ruth. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 1997. Written by a woman with special interests in intertextuality and plot development.

Sasson, Jack M. Ruth: A New Translation with a Philological Commentary and a Formalist-Folklorist Interpretation. 2d ed. Sheffield, 1989. An ancient Near Eastern specialist examines this book.

Younger, K. Lawson, Jr. Judges/Ruth. NIVAC. Evangelical and sensitive to literary forms and rhetoric.

1 & 2 Samuel

Anderson, A.A. 2 Samuel. WBC. Word, 1989. Considers the historical context as one in which David and Solomon are presented as rightful occupants of the throne in Jerusalem.

Arnold, Bill T. 1 & 2 Samuel. NIVAC. Zondervan, 2003. Fine exposition of biblical text with helpful applications. Evangelical.

Baldwin, Joyce G. 1 & 2 Samuel. TOTC. InterVarsity, 1988. Helpful exegetical commentary with some attention given to theological issues. Evangelical.

*Bergen, R. D. 1 and 2 Samuel. NAC. Broadman, 1996. Evangelical reflecting a knowledge of the Hebrew and modern linguistics.

Brueggemann, Walter. First and Second Samuel. Int. Westminster John Knox, 1990. Focus on text as literature (vs. historical questions) to probe how its ideology impacts human experience.

Campbell, Anthony F. 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel. FOTL 7,8. Eerdmans, 2003 and 2005, respectfully. Form-critical analysis that attempts to identify the genre, setting, and literary features of the narratives.

Evans, Mary. 1 and 2 Samuel. NIBC. Hendrickson, 2000. Comments on sections and paragraphs, followed by more detailed endnotes. Evangelical.

Fokkelman, J. P. Narrative Art and Poetry in the Books of Samuel: A Full Interpretation Based on Stylistic and Structural Analyses. 4 vols. Van Gorcum, 1981-1993. More than two thousand pages of careful literary analysis of the books of Samuel.

Gordon, R.P. 1 and 2 Samuel. Zondervan, 1986. Evangelical historical and grammatical study of the book.

Jobling, David. 1 Samuel. Berit Olam. Liturgical Press, 1998. Feminist and deconstructionist essays on the book's structure and message from a modern critical perspective.

Klein, R.W. 1 Samuel. WBC. Word, 1983. A commentary concerned with the final form of the text.

*McCarter, P. Kyle, Jr., I Samuel and II Samuel. AB. Doubleday, 1980, 1984. The most important study of the Hebrew text in relation to Greek and Dead Sea Scroll witnesses.

Smith, James E. 1 & 2 Samuel. College Pres NIV Commentary. College Press, 2000. Moderate detail from an evangelical perspective.


Halpern, Baruch. David's Secret Demons. Messiah, Murderer, Traitor, King. Eerdmans, 2001. A biblical historian takes a critical look at the text and its chief human character.

1 & 2 Kings

Brueggemann, Walter. 1 & 2 Kings. Smith & Helwys Commentary. Smith & Helwys, 2000. Mid-level commentary with helpful sidebars and accompanying CD-Rom. “Connections” section designed to stimulate theological reflection.

*Cogan, Mordechai. I Kings. AB 10. Doubleday, 2000. Thorough discussion of the textual, critical, and archaeological problems and data.

*Cogan, M., and H. Tadmor. II Kings. AB. Doubleday, 1988. Essential discussion of the Assyrian context of Judah during the latter period of the Monarchy and especially the time of Hezekiah.

DeVries, Simon J. 1 Kings. WBC. Word, 1985. Useful Evangelical commentary written without apology for the difficulties in the book.

Fretheim, Terence E. First and Second Kings. WeBC. Westminster John Knox, 1999. A popular discussion that focuses on the literary and rhetorical direction and purpose of the texts.

Hobbs, T.R. 2 Kings. WBC. Word, 1985. Evangelical literary and theological interepretation of 2 Kings.

*House, P. R. 1 and 2 Kings. NAC. Broadman, 1995. Evangelical theological and literary synthesis of recent approaches.

Jones, G. H. 1 and 2 Kings. Volumes I and II. NCB. Eerdmans, 1984. Historical and textual criticism dominate the concerns of these volumes.

Knoppers, Gary N. Two Nations under God: The Deuteronomistic History of Solomon and the Dual Monarchies. 2 vols. Scholars, 1993, 1994. A doctoral dissertation that provides a historical and critical commentary on Kings.

Long, Burke O. 1 Kings with an Introduction to Historical Literature. FOTL 9. Eerdmans, 1984. Moderate form-critical approach with concise discussion of structure, genre, setting, and intention of each passage.

Long, Burke O. 2 Kings. FOTL 10. Eerdmans, 1991. See preceding. Closes with extensive glossary of form-critical terminology.

Mulder, Martin J. 1 Kings. Volume 1: 1 Kings 1-11. HCOT. Peeters, 1998. A remarkably detailed exegetical study of the Hebrew text, with senstivity to versions and literary forms and sympathy to historical value.

Nelson, Richard First and Second Kings. Int. John Knox, 1987. Theological approach to the narrative designed to seek lessons for preaching and teaching.

*Provan, Iain W. 1 and 2 Kings. NIBC. Hendrickson, 1995. Literarily and theologically sensitive, with helpful endnotes and four excurses on canonical connections. Evangelical.

Walsh, Jerome T. 1 Kings. Berit Olam. Liturgical, 1996. Commentary in the context of a study of literary and narrative forms of 1 Kings.

Wiseman, Donald J. 1 and 2 Kings. IVP, 1993. Evangelical application of archaeological and historical studies to the interpretation and application of the message of Kings.

1 & 2 Chronicles

Braun, R. 1 Chronicles. WBC. Word, 1986. An Evangelical contribution with appreciation of the historical worth of the text.

Dillard, R.B. II Chronicles. WBC. Word, 1987. Similar to Braun for 1 Chronicles, with appreciation of Williamson's work in several cases.

Hill, Andrew E. 1 & 2 Chronicles. NIVAC. Zondervan, 2003. Comprehensive engagement with oft-neglected books with a careful eye to contemporary relevance. Evangelical.

*Japhet, Sara. I & II Chronicles. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 1993. A detailed theological commentary that is sensitive to Chronicles as history.

Johnstone, William. 1 & 2 Chronicles. 2 volumes. Sheffield, 1997. A literary and rhetorical study of Chronicles as a text of hope for restoration in future generations.

Selman, Martin J. 1 Chronicles. 2 Chronicles. 2 vols. TOTC. IVP, 1994. Evangelical study with special emphasis upon the theological significance and application.

Thompson, John A. 1 and 2 Chronicles. NAC. Broadman, 1995. Evangelical aprreciation of the books as historically reliable.

Williamson, H.G.M. 1 and 2 Chronicles. NCB. Eerdmans, 1982. Presents the books as basically historical with creative development for theological purposes.

Ezra & Nehemiah

Allen, L. and T. Laniak. Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther. NIBC. Hendrickson - Paternoster, 2003. Good exposition from an evangelical perspective. Good attention to literary, historical, and cultural issues.

Blenkinsopp, J. Ezra-Nehemiah. OTL. Westminster, 1988. An important discussion reflecting opinions held by many scholars and stressing the importance of the period for Judaism.

Breneman, Mervin. Ezra Nehemiah Esther. NAC. Broadman, 1993. An Evangelical conservative review of the recent discussions and applications regarding these books.

Clines, D.J.A. Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther. NCB. Eerdmans, 1984. Strong bibliographies and introductions. In Esther God's existence is a premise not requiring mention.

Fensham, F.C. The Books of Ezra and Nehemiah. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1982. Evangelical focus on the historical and archaeological background.

Kidner, D. Ezra and Nehemiah. TOTC. IVP, 1979. Evangelical discussion of the theological message of the book.

Throntveit, Mark A. Ezra-Nehemiah. Int. John Knox, 1992. A more up-to-date discussion of theological and interpretative issues.

*Williamson, H.G.M. Ezra-Nehemiah. WBC. Word, 1985. A judicious survey of the historical and major exegetical issues with an awareness of the archaeological component.


(See also commentaries listed above for Ruth and for Ezra & Nehemiah.)

Allen, L. and T. Laniak. Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther. NIBC. Hendrickson - Paternoster, 2003. See above under Ezra.

Baldwin, J.G. Esther. TOTC. IVP, 1984. Evangelical with a strong introduction and discussion of the book's contemporary theological relevance.

*Berlin, Adele. Esther. JPS. Jewish Publication Society, 2001. Good exposition of text written by a scholar skilled in literary approaches.

Fox, Michael V. Character and Ideology in the Book of Esther. University of South Carolina Press, 1991. A text critical and literary study that stresses how open ended the book is with uncertainty about many aspects including the role of God.

Jobes, Karen J. Esther. NIV Application Bible. Zondervan, 1999. Very useful commentary that offers theological reflection and practical applications based on solid exegesis. Evangelical.

Levenson, Jon D. Esther. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 1997. A master of biblical theology from a Jewish perspective examines the book of Esther.


Alden, Robert A. Job. NAC. Broadman, 1994. A balanced and Evangelical discussion of the Biblical text.

Anderson, F.I. Job. TOTC. IVP, 1976. Evangelical and linguistic study of the text.

*Clines, D.J.A. Job 1-20. WBC. Word, 1989. Remarkable study in its detail, with profound reflection on the implications of the rhetoric.

Gordis, R. The Book of Job: Commentary, New Translation and Special Studies. Ktav, 1978. A Jewish perspective with attention to the interpretation of difficult words and phrases.

Habel, Norman C. The Book of Job. OTL. Westminster, 1985. Detailed linguistic notes with insights of literary structure.

Hartley, J. Job. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1988. Good Evangelical survey and interaction with relevant secondary literature.

Janzen, J.G. Job. Interp. John Knox, 1985. Existentialist approach stressing the element of free will in creation; at times more technical in its discussion.

Wharton, James A. Job. WeBC. Westminster John Knox, 1999. A literary reading of the book of Job that emphasizes Job's search for and gift of the presence of God.


Allen L.C. Psalms 101-150. WBC. Word, 1983. A balanced and comprehensive Evangelical survey of exegesis in these psalms.

Cohen, A. Psalms. Hebrew Text, English Translation and Commentary. Revised by E. Oratz. Soncino, 1992. A Jewish perspective on the interpretation of the Psalms.

*Craigie, P. Psalms 1-50. WBC. Word, 1983. A clearly written Evangelical combination of comparative Ugaritic studies and theological insights with practical application.

Kidner, D. Psalms 1-72 and Psalms 73-150. TOTC. IVP, 1973, 1975. An Evangelical musical artist and theological exegete brings the psalms to life.

Kraus, H.-J. Psalms 1-59. Translated by H. C. Oswald. Continental. Fortress, 1988. A comprehensive review of scholarship and detailed commentary on the Psalms.

Kraus, H.-J. Psalms 60-150. Translated by H. C. Oswald. Continental. Fortress, 1989.

Mays, J. L. Psalms. Int. Westminster John Knox, 1994. This is a theological and practical commentary set within the contexts of the canon of Scripture and the history of interpretation.

Tate, M. E. Psalms 51-100. WBC. Word, 1990. An Evangelical focus on review of scholarship, exegesis and word studies, and the relation of psalms to one another.

*Terrien, Samuel. The Psalms. Strophic Structure and Theological Commentary. ECC. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003. A theological and practical exegesis of the Psalms from an expert in Wisdom literature; with translation.

Weiser, A. Psalms. OTL. Westminster, 1962. Focus on annual festivals and the psalms' role in them.

Williams, D. M. Psalms. CC. 2 vols. Word, 1986. Evangelical.


Bullock, C. Hassell. Encountering the Book of Psalms: A Literary and Theological Introduction. Baker, 2001. The best college survey of the teaching of the Psalms.

Grogan, Geoffrey. Prayer, Praise & Prophecy: A Theology of the Psalms. Mentor. Christian Focus, 2001. Encounter the great themes of God, suffering, and the expectation of the Messiah in this introduction to the theology of the Psalms.


Alden, Robert L. Proverbs: A Commentary on an Ancient Book of Timeless Advice. Baker, 1983. Evangelical exegesis.

Clifford, Richard J. Proverbs. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 1999. Concise, original discussion of the meanings of each of the proverbs and their place in their original context, as well as attention to the overall structure of the book.

*Fox, Michael V. Proverbs 1-9. Anchor Bible. Doubleday, 2000. A detailed and careful study, with full awareness of the key issues.

Garrett, Duane A. Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song of Songs. NAC. Nashville: Broadman, 1993. Evangelical discussion of these three Solomonic books with useful exegesis and theological application.

Heim, Knut Martin. Like Grapes of Gold Set in Silver: An Interpretation of Proverbial Clusters in Proverbs 10:1-22:16. Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft Band 273. Walter de Gruyter, 2001. Best exegesis of this difficult middle section of the book, with emphasis on context in understanding and relating the individual proverbs.

Hubbard, D.A. Proverbs. Mastering the Old Testament. CC. Word, 1989. Evangelical exposition and application.

Kidner, D. Proverbs. TOTC. IVP, 1964. Evangelical balanced reflections on the meaning of each of the proverbs.

McKane, W. Proverbs: A New Approach. OTL. Westminster, 1970. Learned discussion based on original secular wisdom that evolved to theologically oriented wisdom literature.

*Waltke, Bruce K. The Book of Proverbs Chapters 1-15. NICOT. Eerdmans, 2004. Evangelical with excellent linguistic and structural discussion of the first half of the book. A current and valuable introduction and bibliography open the work.


Crenshaw, J.L. Ecclesiastes. OTL. Westminster, 1987. A master of biblical wisdom literature considers this book.

Eaton, Michael A. Ecclesiastes. An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1983. Evangelical appreciation of a positive interpretation to the book as an apologetic in a world of faithlessness.

Fox, Michael V. A Time to Tear Down and a Time to Build Up: A Rereading of Ecclesiastes. Eerdmans, 1999. A highly regarded authority on biblical wisdom literature considers Ecclesiastes as a tract on the absurdity of life.

Gordis, R. Koholeth: The Man and His World. Schocken, 1951. A philological commentary on the Hebrew text that remains useful.

*Longman, Tremper, III. Ecclesiastes. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1997. With great linguistic and literary skill, this Evangelical study demonstrates the argument of Ecclesiastes as a warning against negative, skeptical conclusions about God and human existence.

Murphy, Roland E. Ecclesiastes. WBC. Dallas, 1992. Lengthy introduction with standard exegesis, the author adds a monologue on the traditional wisdom that the book challenged.

Provan, Iain. Ecclesiastes/Song of Songs. NIVAC. Zondervan, 2001. Evangelical approach, taking a negative view of the book's main teaching with an appreciation of the theological and philosophical implications.

*Seow, C.-L. Ecclesiastes. AB. Doubleday, 1997. Important summary of recent research with a careful exegesis of what is regarded as a Persian period book.

Whybray, R.N. Ecclesiastes. NCB. Eerdmans, 1989. Good survey of secondary literature with exegesis that argues a middle of the road position for the Hellenistic author.

Song of Songs

Bergant, Dianne. The Song of Songs. Berit Olam. Michael Glazier, 2001. Literary insights and analysis.

Carr, G. Lloyd. The Song of Solomon. An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. IVP, 1984. Evangelical discussion of this book as love poetry.

Garrett, Duane, and Paul R. House. Song of Songs/Lamentations. WBC 23B. Nelson, 2004. Thoroughly researched, evenly balanced, and reasonable application of the text by an Evangelical scholar (Garrett writes on the Song) who has produced his second major commentary on this book in eleven years.

*Hess, Richard S. Song of Songs. Baker Commentary on the Old Testament Wisdom and Psalms. Baker, 2005. An Evangelical and exegetical study of the Song with an integrated analysis of the Hebrew text, the poetic macro- and microstructure, and the theological significance for the Christian.

Keel, Othmar. Song of Songs. Translated by F. J. Geiser. ConC. Fortress, 1994. An authority on Israelite iconography interprets the images of the book.

Longman, Tremper, III. Song of Songs. NICOT. Eerdmans, 2001. Evangelical study of a collection of different love songs joined together by literary techniques into a progression.

Murphy, R.E. The Song of Songs. Hermeneia. Fortress, 1990. A thorough commentary with theological as well as exegetical insight.

Pope, M.H. Song of Songs. AB. Doubleday, 1977. A large commentary with frequent digressions into comparative customs.

Provan, Iain. Ecclesiastes/Song of Songs. NIVAC. Zondervan, 2001. Interprets the Song as a drama with three main characters. See under Ecclesiastes.


Baltzer, Klaus. Isaiah 40-55. Hermeneia. Fortress, 2001. Careful linguistic analysis of the chapters, assumes the rhetorical form of a Greek drama.

Blenkinsopp, Joseph. Isaiah 40-55. Doubleday, 2000; Isaiah 56-66. Doubleday, 2003. AB. A careful and balanced analysis of the language and forms of the second half of Isaiah.

Brueggemann, Walter. Isaiah 1-39 and Isaiah 40-66. Westminster John Knox, 1998. Canonical approach focused on ascertaining how the text speaks with power to modern realities.

Childs, Brevard S. Isaiah: A Commentary. OTL. Westminster John Knox, 2001. The founder of the canonical approach comments with theological and literary sensitivity as well as an appreciation for the history of its interpretation.

Goldingay, John. Isaiah. NIBC. Hendrickson; Paternoster, 2001. A critical evangelical approach with an eye to literary and theological issues.

*Goldingay, John. The Message of Isaiah 40-55: A Literary-Theological Commentary. London: T. & T. Clark, 2005. Careful exposition with theological and literary sensitivities. Designed to complement forthcoming volume in ICC series. Critical evangelical.

Kaiser, Otto. Isaiah 1-39. 2 vols. OTL. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1983, 1974. Emphasis of discussion often on authenticity and historical reconstruction instead of theology from a critical perspective.

Motyer, J. Alec. The Prophecy of Isaiah: An Introduction & Commentary. InterVarsity, 1993. Attention to textual details within the literary structure of the book. Evangelical.

Motyer, J. Alec. Isaiah: An Introduction and Commentary. TOTC. InterVarsity, 1999. An abbreviated form of the larger 1993 publication, with some revision. Evangelical.

Ortlund, Jr. Raymond C. Isaiah: God Saves Sinners. Preaching the Word Series. Crossway, 2005. Basic exposition of text and theology from an evangelical perspective. Designed to help preaching, contains illustrations, and deals with contemporary concerns.

*Oswalt, John N. The Book of Isaiah. 2 volumes. NICOT. Eerdmans, 1986, 1998. Solid Evangelical exposition of the biblical text. Introduction could be stronger.

Seitz, Christopher R. Isaiah 1-39. Int. John Knox, 1993. Exposition that is sensitive to literary issues, designed to be an aid for teaching and preaching.

Walker, Larry L. Isaiah, Jeremiah-Lamentations. Cornerstone Biblical Commentary. Tyndale House, 2005. Brief textual notes and comments based on NLT, geared to pastors and lay leaders. Evangelical.

Watts, John D.W. Isaiah. 2 vols. WBC. Waco: Word Books, 1985, 1987. His unique approach to Isaiah as drama has not won much support. Evangelical.

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