Nineteenth-Century Medicine in the United Kingdom
At the turn of the nineteenth century, medicine was hardly the enlightened profession it is today. Medical practices were often barbaric, employing methods that had been used for centuries, yielding little or no results and often killing the patient with a different affliction than the original ailment. Leeching (or blood letting), purgation, poor liquid diets, and cold water dousing were common practices as late as the 1850's. Even after newer, more effective methods of medical treatment had been introduced, many of the physicians, surgeons, and apothecaries hesitated to use them. Fearing the loss of their reputations, they hung on to superstitious beliefs, doubting the effectiveness of such advances, and were basically unwilling to try something new.
Medical men weren't always respected as educated, intelligent members of society because some "practiced with university degrees, various forms of medical licenses, sometimes a combination of these, and sometimes with none at all" (Peterson 5). Part of the problem with educating and licensing doctors was in the conflicting struggle for rights and power between licensing bodies; there were nineteen of them in the United Kingdom alone. There was also no representation of any reputable doctors within the medical universities and corporations that voted in Parliamentary elections. By the end of the century, medical training facilities were forced to upgrade their standards due to pressure within some parts of the medical community and because discoveries in fields like chemistry and physics ultimately led to advances in medicine.
Early nineteenth-century medical training was extremely diverse. While some practitioners held university degrees from the most respected medical colleges of the world, some were apprenticed to apothecaries where they "spent most of their time capping bottles and rolling pills" (Youngson 12). Still others were quacks and drug peddlers who practiced freely with no legal sanctions against them.
There was, in the United Kingdom, a defined social structure of medical men which was divided into three orders. There were three divisions of legitimate medical groups. They were the Royal College of Physician, the Royal College of Surgeons, and the Society of Apothecaries. These impressive-sounding organizations reflected status groups in medicine and detailed the differing duties, legal privileges, and social ranks within the medical community.
Physicians were university-educated and considered the most knowledgeable about medicine. They were not permitted to act as surgeons or dispense drugs as apothecaries before 1858. They were only permitted to examine patients, diagnose disease, and prescribe medications. In 1800, there were 179 licensed physicians; by 1847 there were 683.
Surgeons performed operations, set broken bones, and treated accident cases and skin disorders. The nature of a surgeon's work separated him from a physician in that a surgeon had to cut, manipulate, and treat disorders on the outside of the body. A surgeon was considered a skilled craftsman as his work "demanded speed, dexterity, and physical strength, as well as expertise" (Peterson 9). The most significant difference between surgeons and physicians was in their education. Surgeons were apprenticed just as other traditional craftsmen, while physicians were university educated. By 1800, there were 8000 members of the Royal College of Surgeons. It was easier to become a surgeon than a physician because one only had to have enough money to be apprenticed but, in order to make a living, a surgeon often had to dispense drugs in a dual role as licensed apothecary. Unlike physicians, surgeons were permitted to be licensed as both surgeon an apothecary.
Apothecaries were not only druggists responsible for the sale, compounding, and supply of drugs but, thanks to the Apothecaries Act of 1815, were able to provide medical advice and prescribe medication themselves. Apothecaries, like surgeons, were apprenticed as skilled tradesman for a minimum of five years, with an age requirement of twenty-one years. The Society of Apothecaries was an important qualification to obtain so that a surgeon could also practice as an apothecary. More that 6000 apothecary licenses were issued between 1815 and 1834, half of these to surgeons.
During the first fifty years of the nineteenth century apothecaries and surgeons were taking apprentices for as much as 500 guineas, and the apprentices were typically sons of other apothecaries or surgeons, clergymen, lawyers, and some schoolmasters. They were the sons of men with enough money to educate their children (women during this century were nurses or midwives, rarely physicians, apothecaries, or surgeons.). A few businessmen, tradesmen, and some farmers could manage to apprentice their sons, but they often lacked any primary education prior to their apprenticeship. More alarming was the lack of a proper education of the medical students in the universities.
Licensing bodies of the United Kingdom required preliminary examinations for medical students, but "These examinations varied greatly, both in subjects tested and in the standards for passing" (Peterson 57). The exams were supposed to keep out uncultured men by requiring competence in English, literature, math, Latin, Greek, physics, logic, and a foreign language. However, with a little tutoring in French, Latin, and algebra just before the exams, a medical school candidate could get into a university. Even as late as 1800, "English and elementary philosophy (i.e. basic anatomy) were enough to begin medical training" (Peterson 57). Many of the students were sons of existing physicians or wealthy men and were able to buy their way into the university.
To further compound the problem, even some of the best medical colleges examined students in only four divisions of medicine (those four divisions being chosen by the college), although the colleges required at least four years of training to graduate. These years had to be filled in somehow, and they "were apt to be spent in idleness and sensual gratification; medical students had an unenviable reputation for drunkenness and debauchery" (Youngson 14). To graduate, students often employed a "grinder," someone who prepared the student by teaching him the questions and answers to the exam by rote. Favoritism and nepotism also helped a student to graduate. These practices were typical of medical schools as late as 1870.
There were nineteen different licensing bodies at this time and ten prominent medical universities in the United Kingdom during the nineteenth century. English universities were Oxford, Cambridge, London, Victoria, and Durham. In Scotland they were Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Glasgow, and St. Andrew's, and Trinity College Dublin was in Ireland. Medical colleges were all expensive regardless of what country they were in. Medical students had to be relatively wealthy or from a wealthy family that could afford to pay for tuition, books, fees, and room and board. In 1860, the total cost of four years of medical school at the University of London was between 228 and 268 pounds. This was considered a moderate budget. Although tuition and fees varied from college to college, 600 pounds for four to five years of medical colleges was considered an average figure in obtaining the best medical education available. (Peterson 69-74).
In 1848, Edinburgh was considered to offer the best organized and most thorough medical training to be had. But, by 1880, London University held the highest reputation for training medical students and for giving difficult and probing final exams.
Oxford and Cambridge Universities lured "students who wanted to pursue a medical degree in an environment of splendid opportunities both for social and general literary and scientific culture" (Peterson 66). Previously considered social clubs for rich boys, Oxford and Cambridge had, by 1880, better trained their graduates in scientific and medical techniques although the number of graduates was fewer. During the first thirty years of the nineteenth century, Oxford had educated 75 to 80% of the physicians in the UK. This number dropped significantly by the end of the century to only 30%, but the quality of graduating physicians was better. London University was the leader in graduating medical students with 32% of the physicians. Scottish universities and western European universities account for the other 38%. The profession, at this point, shifted the conditions from wealthy and conservative to more middle class and progressive, and from Oxford to London and Edinburgh.
During the first half of the nineteenth century medical research and education in the UK were still relatively poor in relation to other western European countries and in some instances were deplorable. It wasn't until the passage of the Medical Act of 1858 that any attempts to change existing conditions were made. This act was the "Bill to regulate the qualifications of Practitioners in Medicine and Surgery" (Peterson 34). Despite efforts to control unlicensed practitioners, "Qualified medical men gained only partial protection from competition with unlicensed practitioners" (Peterson 36). It wasn't until the Medical Act Amendment Act of 1886 that representation was given to general practitioners during corporate and university elections. Previously, seventeen different bills were introduced into Parliament between 1840 and 1858 to reorganize medical education and licensing in the UK. Medical reform was not a priority because "failure of all but one of these medical reform bills reveals the conflicting interests and needs of the elites of the corporations, on the one hand, and those of the rank and file, on the other. Parliamentary handling of the matter of medical reform also reveals some of the attitudes of Victorian society towards the profession and toward the place of medical science in the life of the English public" (Peterson 30).
Outside of the UK, important medical research and medical training was taking place. France, between 1790 and 1840, was the most prominent center on the continent for medical instruction and life science investigation. Although understanding of human anatomy was well developed by 1800, physiology was founded on superstitions and suppositions. In France, "physicians in Parisian hospitals were affecting a revolution in medicine by combining careful postmortem examinations of diseased patients with the clinical descriptions of the patients' disease during life" (Pfeiffer 10). Clinical pathophysiological observations of postmortem dissections were often published and the physicians and the general public outside of France were often disturbed by these kinds of practices going on in Paris. People considered their medical experiments radical and sacrilegious. Grave robbing had been a popular practice to obtain cadavers for dissection in the UK for those who wanted to study the human body. It wasn't until the Anatomy Act of 1832 that bodies became legally available for dissection.
Parisian physicians were beginning to specialize in different areas of medicine such as obstetrics, lunacy, and ophthalmology. Ultimately the specialist posed a threat to the general practitioners despite their humane and scientific motives and activities. The prevailing theory of the time was that the body was a whole unit, its parts being interconnected in such a way that specialization of one function or part would jeopardize the functions of the whole body. The bitter practitioners also feared they would lose their patients to specialist hospitals, depriving the doctors of an income. Eventually the widespread success and fame of specialists was tarnished by the practitioners "labeling the specialist as a greedy profiteer, seeking only to line his pockets" (Peterson 272).
The income of a medical man varied widely. While most apothecaries and surgeons had to play dual roles to earn enough to survive, high ranking physician consultants in London (between 1824 and 1846) could earn between 1500 and 2000 pounds a year. By the end of the century this figure increased to between 4000 and 5000 pounds a year. Wealthy physicians often owned estates, country homes, and many horses and carriages, and employed many servants. Financial success depended on clientele, expertise, and whether or not the physician was considered fashionable within social circles.
Ironically, most physicians regardless of status were ignorant of drug actions, even as late as 1850, and "were content to enquire about previous illness and present appetite: to feel the pulse, and to observe the appearance of the eyes, tongue, urine, and faeces, in that order of interest" (Younson 19).
These kinds of practices were to change with the passing of the Medical Act Amendment Act of 1886. The small group of dedicated and knowledgeable men of medicine, whose goal was to reform medical education and thereby change medical practices, finally had a voice in Parliament. Gone were the antics such as "Steeplechases in the dissecting room, cheating on the Latin examination, flirting with the barmaid, gin-and water until three o'clock in the morning" (Peterson 40). By the 1880's, these stereotypical university scenes were replaced by "a new image of the medical student: surrounded by books, a model of human skull at his elbow, he labored over his studies with gravity and decorum late in to the night" (Peterson 40). Because of the efforts of the enlightened few, and because of the discoveries happening in other European countries, the United Kingdom was finally able to give the medical profession the much desired respect and reform that it needed, making medicine a profession to be revered and a source of pride to all those who practiced it.
Peterson, M. Jeanne. The Medical Profession in Mid-Victorian London. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: U of California P, 1978.
Pfeiffer, Carl J. The Art and Practice of Western Medicine in the Early Nineteenth Century. Jefferson, NC, and London: McFarland, 1985.
Youngson, A.J. The Scientific Revolution in Victorian Medicine. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1979.
Sample Medical School Essays
This section contains two sample medical school essays
- Medical School Sample Essay One
- Medical School Sample Essay Two
Medical School Essay One
Prompt: What makes you an excellent candidate for medical school? Why do you want to become a physician?
When I was twelve years old, a drunk driver hit the car my mother was driving while I was in the backseat. I have very few memories of the accident, but I do faintly recall a serious but calming face as I was gently lifted out of the car. The paramedic held my hand as we traveled to the hospital. I was in the hospital for several weeks and that same paramedic came to visit me almost every day. During my stay, I also got to know the various doctors and nurses in the hospital on a personal level. I remember feeling anxiety about my condition, but not sadness or even fear. It seemed to me that those around me, particularly my family, were more fearful of what might happen to me than I was. I don’t believe it was innocence or ignorance, but rather a trust in the abilities of my doctors. It was as if my doctors and I had a silent bond. Now that I’m older I fear death and sickness in a more intense way than I remember experiencing it as a child. My experience as a child sparked a keen interest in how we approach pediatric care, especially as it relates to our psychological and emotional support of children facing serious medical conditions. It was here that I experienced first-hand the power and compassion of medicine, not only in healing but also in bringing unlikely individuals together, such as adults and children, in uncommon yet profound ways. And it was here that I began to take seriously the possibility of becoming a pediatric surgeon.
My interest was sparked even more when, as an undergraduate, I was asked to assist in a study one of my professors was conducting on how children experience and process fear and the prospect of death. This professor was not in the medical field; rather, her background is in cultural anthropology. I was very honored to be part of this project at such an early stage of my career. During the study, we discovered that children face death in extremely different ways than adults do. We found that children facing fatal illnesses are very aware of their condition, even when it hasn’t been fully explained to them, and on the whole were willing to fight their illnesses, but were also more accepting of their potential fate than many adults facing similar diagnoses. We concluded our study by asking whether and to what extent this discovery should impact the type of care given to children in contrast to adults. I am eager to continue this sort of research as I pursue my medical career. The intersection of medicine, psychology, and socialization or culture (in this case, the social variables differentiating adults from children) is quite fascinating and is a field that is in need of better research.
Although much headway has been made in this area in the past twenty or so years, I feel there is a still a tendency in medicine to treat diseases the same way no matter who the patient is. We are slowly learning that procedures and drugs are not always universally effective. Not only must we alter our care of patients depending upon these cultural and social factors, we may also need to alter our entire emotional and psychological approach to them as well.
It is for this reason that I’m applying to the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, as it has one of the top programs for pediatric surgery in the country, as well as several renowned researchers delving into the social, generational, and cultural questions in which I’m interested. My approach to medicine will be multidisciplinary, which is evidenced by the fact that I’m already double-majoring in early childhood psychology and pre-med, with a minor in cultural anthropology. This is the type of extraordinary care that I received as a child—care that seemed to approach my injuries with a much larger and deeper picture than that which pure medicine cannot offer—and it is this sort of care I want to provide my future patients. I turned what might have been a debilitating event in my life—a devastating car accident—into the inspiration that has shaped my life since. I am driven and passionate. And while I know that the pediatric surgery program at Johns Hopkins will likely be the second biggest challenge I will face in my life, I know that I am up for it. I am ready to be challenged and prove to myself what I’ve been telling myself since that fateful car accident: I will be a doctor.
Medical School Essay Two
Prompt: Where do you hope to be in ten years’ time?
If you had told me ten years ago that I would be writing this essay and planning for yet another ten years into the future, part of me would have been surprised. I am a planner and a maker of to-do lists, and it has always been my plan to follow in the steps of my father and become a physician. This plan was derailed when I was called to active duty to serve in Iraq as part of the War on Terror.
I joined the National Guard before graduating high school and continued my service when I began college. My goal was to receive training that would be valuable for my future medical career, as I was working in the field of emergency health care. It was also a way to help me pay for college. When I was called to active duty in Iraq for my first deployment, I was forced to withdraw from school, and my deployment was subsequently extended. I spent a total of 24 months deployed overseas, where I provided in-the-field medical support to our combat troops. While the experience was invaluable not only in terms of my future medical career but also in terms of developing leadership and creative thinking skills, it put my undergraduate studies on hold for over two years. Consequently, my carefully-planned journey towards medical school and a medical career was thrown off course. Thus, while ten-year plans are valuable, I have learned from experience how easily such plans can dissolve in situations that are beyond one’s control, as well as the value of perseverance and flexibility.
Eventually, I returned to school. Despite my best efforts to graduate within two years, it took me another three years, as I suffered greatly from post-traumatic stress disorder following my time in Iraq. I considered abandoning my dream of becoming a physician altogether, since I was several years behind my peers with whom I had taken biology and chemistry classes before my deployment. Thanks to the unceasing encouragement of my academic advisor, who even stayed in contact with me when I was overseas, I gathered my strength and courage and began studying for the MCAT. To my surprise, my score was beyond satisfactory and while I am several years behind my original ten-year plan, I am now applying to Brown University’s School of Medicine.
I can describe my new ten-year plan, but I will do so with both optimism and also caution, knowing that I will inevitably face unforeseen complications and will need to adapt appropriately. One of the many insights I gained as a member of the National Guard and by serving in war-time was the incredible creativity medical specialists in the Armed Forces employ to deliver health care services to our wounded soldiers on the ground. I was part of a team that was saving lives under incredibly difficult circumstances—sometimes while under heavy fire and with only the most basic of resources. I am now interested in how I can use these skills to deliver health care in similar circumstances where basic medical infrastructure is lacking. While there is seemingly little in common between the deserts of Fallujah and rural Wyoming, where I’m currently working as a volunteer first responder in a small town located more than 60 miles from the nearest hospital, I see a lot of potential uses for the skills that I gained as a National Guardsman. As I learned from my father, who worked with Doctors Without Borders for a number of years, there is quite a bit in common between my field of knowledge from the military and working in post-conflict zones. I feel I have a unique experience from which to draw as I embark on my medical school journey, experiences that can be applied both here and abroad.
In ten years’ time, I hope to be trained in the field of emergency medicine, which, surprisingly, is a specialization that is actually lacking here in the United States as compared to similarly developed countries. I hope to conduct research in the field of health care infrastructure and work with government agencies and legislators to find creative solutions to improving access to emergency facilities in currently underserved areas of the United States, with an aim towards providing comprehensive policy reports and recommendations on how the US can once again be the world leader in health outcomes. While the problems inherent in our health care system are not one-dimensional and require a dynamic approach, one of the solutions as I see it is to think less in terms of state-of-the-art facilities and more in terms of access to primary care. Much of the care that I provide as a first responder and volunteer is extremely effective and also relatively cheap. More money is always helpful when facing a complex social and political problem, but we must think of solutions above and beyond more money and more taxes. In ten years I want to be a key player in the health care debate in this country and offering innovative solutions to delivering high quality and cost-effective health care to all our nation’s citizens, especially to those in rural and otherwise underserved areas.
Of course, my policy interests do not replace my passion for helping others and delivering emergency medicine. As a doctor, I hope to continue serving in areas of the country that, for one reason or another, are lagging behind in basic health care infrastructure. Eventually, I would also like to take my knowledge and talents abroad and serve in the Peace Corps or Doctors Without Borders.
In short, I see the role of physicians in society as multifunctional: they are not only doctors who heal, they are also leaders, innovators, social scientists, and patriots. Although my path to medical school has not always been the most direct, my varied and circuitous journey has given me a set of skills and experiences that many otherwise qualified applicants lack. I have no doubt that the next ten years will be similarly unpredictable, but I can assure you that no matter what obstacles I face, my goal will remain the same. I sincerely hope to begin the next phase of my journey at Brown University. Thank you for your kind attention.
To learn more about what to expect from the study of medicine, check out our Study Medicine in the US section.
Tips for a Successful Medical School Essay
- If you’re applying through AMCAS, remember to keep your essay more general rather than tailored to a specific medical school, because your essay will be seen by multiple schools.
- AMCAS essays are limited to 5300 characters—not words! This includes spaces.
- Make sure the information you include in your essay doesn't conflict with the information in your other application materials.
- In general, provide additional information that isn’t found in your other application materials. Look at the essay as an opportunity to tell your story rather than a burden.
- Keep the interview in mind as you write. You will most likely be asked questions regarding your essay during the interview, so think about the experiences you want to talk about.
- When you are copying and pasting from a word processor to the AMCAS application online, formatting and font will be lost. Don’t waste your time making it look nice. Be sure to look through the essay once you’ve copied it into AMCAS and edit appropriately for any odd characters that result from pasting.
- Avoid overly controversial topics. While it is fine to take a position and back up your position with evidence, you don’t want to sound narrow-minded.
- Revise, revise, revise. Have multiple readers look at your essay and make suggestions. Go over your essay yourself many times and rewrite it several times until you feel that it communicates your message effectively and creatively.
- Make the opening sentence memorable. Admissions officers will read dozens of personal statements in a day. You must say something at the very beginning to catch their attention, encourage them to read the essay in detail, and make yourself stand out from the crowd.
- Character traits to portray in your essay include: maturity, intellect, critical thinking skills, leadership, tolerance, perseverance, and sincerity.
Additional Tips for a Successful Medical School Essay
- Regardless of the prompt, you should always address the question of why you want to go to medical school in your essay.
- Try to always give concrete examples rather than make general statements. If you say that you have perseverance, describe an event in your life that demonstrates perseverance.
- There should be an overall message or theme in your essay. In the example above, the theme is overcoming unexpected obstacles.
- Make sure you check and recheck for spelling and grammar!
- Unless you’re very sure you can pull it off, it is usually not a good idea to use humor or to employ the skills you learned in creative writing class in your personal statement. While you want to paint a picture, you don’t want to be too poetic or literary.
- Turn potential weaknesses into positives. As in the example above, address any potential weaknesses in your application and make them strengths, if possible. If you have low MCAT scores or something else that can’t be easily explained or turned into a positive, simply don’t mention it.